**SQL Functions and Table Joins** is part of Class 12 Informatics Practices Notes for Quick Revision. Here we have given NCERT Class 12 Informatics Practices Notes Chapter 11 SQL Functions and Table Joins.

Contents

## SQL Functions

A function is a set of predefined commands that performs specific operation and returns a single value.

The functions used in SQL can be categorised into two categories namely single row or scalar functions and multiple row or group or aggregate functions.

### 1. Single Row Functions

The single row functions work with a single row at a time and return one result per row. e.g.

String, Number, Date, Conversion and General function are single row functions.**(i) String Functions**

The string functions of MySQL can manipulate the text string in many ways. String functions are broadly divided into two parts:

(a) Case-manipulation functions.

(b) Character-manipulation functions.

**(a) Case-manipulation Functions**

These functions convert case for character strings:

**(b) Character-manipulation Functions**

These functions manipulate character strings:

**(ii) Mathematical Functions**

Mathematical functions are also called number functions that accept numeric input and return numeric values.

**(iii) Date and Time Functions**

Date functions operate on values of the DATE data type:

### 2. Multiple Row Functions

Such types of functions work with the data from more than one rows. Such type of functions are returning aggregate values. Examples of aggregate functions are sum( ), count( ), max( ), min( ), avg( ), etc.

**Aggregate Functions in MySQL**

MySQL also supports and provides group functions or aggregate functions. As you can make out that the group functions or aggregate functions work upon groups of rows, rather than on single rows. That is why, these functions are also called multiple row functions.

**GROUP** (Aggregate) **Functions**

There are following aggregate or group functions available in MySQL:

SELECT [Column] group-function (Column), ... [ORDER By Column] FROM table [WHERE Condition] [GROUP BY Column];

**This section describes group (aggregate) functions that operate on sets of values. Unless otherwise stated, group functions ignore NULL values.**

If you use a group function in a statement containing no GROUP BY clause, it is equivalent to grouping on all rows.**(i) AVG ([DISTINCT]expr)** Returns the average value of expr. The DISTINCT option can be used as of MySQL to return the average of the distinct values of expr.**AVG()** returns **NULL,** if there were no matching rows.

e.g. mysql> SELECT AVG(test_score) FROM STUDENT;

**(ii) COUNT(expr)** Returns a count of the number of non NULL values of expr in the rows retrieved by a SELECT statement. The result is a BIGINT value.**COUNT()** returns 0, if there were no matching rows.

e.g. mysql> SELECT C0UNT(*) FROM STUDENT,COURSE WHERE student.student_id = course.student_id;

**COUNT(*)** is somewhat different in that it returns a count of the number of rows retrieved, whether or not they contain **NULL** values.**COUNT(*)** is optimised to return very quickly, if the **SELECT** retrieves from one table, no other columns are retrieved and there is no WHERE clause.

e.g. mysql> SELECT C0UNT(*) FROM STUDENT;

The query would give you the output, total number of rows in STUDENT table.

**(iii) COUNT( [DISTINCT] expr)** Returns a count of the number of rows with different non **NULL expr** values.**COUNT(DISTINCT)** returns 0, if there were no matching rows.

e.g. mysql> SELECT COUNTCDISTINCT results) FROM STUDENT;

In MySQL, you can obtain the number of distinct expression combinations that do not contain NULL by giving a list of expressions. In standard SQL, you would have to do a concatenation of all expressions inside COUNT(DISTINCT …).

**(iv) MAX([DISTINCT|All] expr)** Returns the maximum value of expr. MAX() may take a string argument; in such cases, it returns the maximum string value. The DISTINCT keyword can be used to find the maximum of the distinct values of expr, however, this produces the same result as omitting DISTINCT.

MAX() returns NULL, if there were no matching rows.

e.g. mysql> SELECT MAX(test_score) FROM STUDENT;

**(v) MIN([DISTINCT|All]expr)** Returns the minimum value of expr. MIN( ) may take a string argument; in such cases, it returns the minimum string value. The DISTINCT keyword can be used to find the minimum of the distinct values of expr, however this produces the same result as omitting DISTINCT.

MIN() returns NULL, if there were no matching rows.

e.g. mysql> SELECT MIN(test_score) FROM STUDENT;

**(vi) SUM([DIST1NCT All]expr)** Returns the sum of expr. If the return set has no rows, SUM() returns NULL. The DISTINCT keyword can be used to sum only the distinct values of expr.

e.g. mysql> SELECT SUM (test_score) FROM STUDENT;

**The GROUP BY Clause**

The GROUP BY clause combines all those records that have identical values in a particular field or a group of fields.

We can group by a column name or with aggregate functions in which case the aggregate produces a value for each group.

e.g. SELECT City, COUNT!*) FROM CUSTOMERS GROUP BY City;

**(i) Nested Groups** With GROUP BY clause we can create nested groups, i.e. groups within groups. For a nested group, we have to follow these steps:

- In the GROUP BY expression, we have to specify the first field determining the highest group level.
- The second field determines the second group level.
- Similarly, other groups till the last field, which specifies the lowest level of grouping.

e.g. SELECT Region, City, COUNTS) FROM CUSTOMERS GROUP BY Region, City;

**(ii) The HAVING Clause HAVING** clause was added to** SQL**, because the **WHERE** keyword could not be used with aggregate function.

e.g. SELECT City.COUNT(*) FROM CUSTOMERS GROUP BY City HAVING BALANCE>10000;

The **HAVING** clause can contain either a simple boolean expression (i.e. a condition which results into true or false) or use aggregate function in the having condition.

**JOIN**

A JOIN is a query through which we can extract queries from two or more tables. It means, it combines rows from two or more tables. Rows in one table can be joined to rows in another table according to common values existing in corresponding columns.

e.g. SELECT * FROM CUSTOMER, SUPPLIER;

There are various types of joins:**1. EQUI-JOIN**

In an EQUI-JOIN operation, the values in the columns are being joined and compared for equality. All the columns in the tables being joined are included in the results, e.g. Two tables **EMPLOYEES** and **DEPARTMENTS** are given below:

To determine an employee’s department name you compare the value Department_id column in the **EMPLOYEES** table with Department_id values in the **DEPARTMENTS** table. The relationship between the **EMPLOYEES** and **DEPARTMENTS** tables is an equi-join that is, values in the Department_id column on both tables must be equal.

To determine employee’s department name, we need to write following query:

SELECT EMPLOYEES.Employee_id, DEPARTMENTS.Department_name FROM EMPLOYEES, DEPARTMENTS WHERE EMPLOYEES. Department_id = DEPARTMENTS. Department_Id;

**Output**

**2. Non-Equi Join**

A non-equi join is a join condition containing something other than an equality operator, e.g. there are

two given tables **EMPLOYEES** and** JOB_GRADES**

The relationship between the EMPLOYEES table and JOB_GRADES table has an example of a non-equi join. A relationship between the two tables is that the SALARY column in the EMPLOYEES table must be between the values in LOWEST_SAL and HIGHEST_SAL columns of the JOB_GRADES table. The relationship is obtained using an operator other than equals (=).

To determine the employees grade according to salary, we need to write following query:

SELECT e.Last_name, j.GRA FROM EMPLOYEES e, JOELGRADES j WHERE e.SALARY BETWEEN j.LOWEST_SAL AND j.HIGHEST SAL;

**Output**

**3. Natural Join**

Usually the result of an equi-join contains two identical columns. Here by restarting the query, we can eliminate one of the two identical columns. It is known as Natural Join.

We can also join two tables using the natural join using NATURAL JOIN clause.

SELECT * FROM <tablel> NATURAL JOIN <table2>; e.g. there are two given tables FOOD and COMPANY:

The relationship between the FOOD table and COMPANY table has an example of a Natural Join. To get all the unique columns from FOOD and COMPANY tables, the following sql statement can be used.

e.g. SELECT * FROM FOOD NATURAL JOIN COMPANY;

**Output**

**Cartesian Product**

The cartesian product is a binary operation and is denoted by (x). The degree of new relation is the sum of the degrees of two relations on which cartesian product is operated. The number of tuples, of the new relation is equal to the product of the number of tuples, of the two relations on which cartesian product is performed.

e.g. if A = {1, 2, 3} and B = {a, b, c}, find A x B.

A x B = ((1, a), (1, b), (1, c), (2, a), (2, b), (2, c), (3, a), (3, b), (3, c))

In sql, the CROSS JOIN or CARTESIAN JOIN is used to produce the cartesian product of two tables. The cartesian product is a basic type of join that matches each row from one table to every row from another table.

e.g. Consider the following EMPLOYEES and DEPARTMENTS tables:

To get the cartesian product, the following sql statement can be used:

SELECT EMP_name, EMPjd FROM EMPLOYEES CROSS JOIN DEPARTMENTS:

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## Class 12 Informatics Practices Notes

Chapter 1 Computer Networking Class 12 Notes

Chapter 2 Open Source Concepts Class 12 Notes

Chapter 3 Java Programming Fundamentals (Revision Tour-I) Class 12 Notes

Chapter 4 Swing Controls (Revision Tour-II) Class 12 Notes

Chapter 5 GUI Programming and Access Specifier Class 12 Notes

Chapter 6 Inheritance Class 12 Notes

Chapter 7 Accessing MySQL Database Using ODBC/JDBC Class 12 Notes

Chapter 8 Web Application Development Class 12 Notes

Chapter 9 HTML and XML Class 12 Notes

Chapter 10 Fundamentals of Database Class 12 Notes

Chapter 11 SQL Functions and Table Joins Class 12 Notes

Chapter 12 Integrity Constraints and Tables Class 12 Notes

Chapter 13 Front-End Interface Class 12 Notes

Chapter 14 Back-End Database Class 12 Notes

Chapter 15 E-Services and ICT Class 12 Notes