Class 12 Class 12 Physical Education Notes

Class 12 Physical Education Notes Chapter 3 Yoga and Lifestyle

Written by cbselearners

Yoga and Lifestyle is part of Class 12 Physical Education Notes for Quick Revision. Here we have given NCERT Physical Education Class 12 Notes Chapter 3 Yoga and Lifestyle.

Yoga and Lifestyle

Yoga and Lifestyle

Asana as Preventive Measures – Yoga and Lifestyle

Asana refer to the many positions in which a person sits or stands to do yoga. It is a Sanskrit word which means a ‘physical posture’. Various types of physical postures or asanas means bending and stretching the body. This stimulates blood circulation, balance the nervous system, benefits the various systems running in our body like digestive system, nervous system, cardiovascular system, muscles, joints etc. Asanas are beneficial for the mind, psyche and chakras (energy centres) thus preventing from many types of lifestyle diseases. Asanas also help in receiving stress, treating anxiety and make a person mentally rejuvenated.

Obesity – Yoga and Lifestyle

The excess weight or deposition of excess fats on body is called obesity. It leads to various diseases like diabetes, heart diseases, hypertension, lowered pulmonary functions, lowers life expectancy. Obesity is a condition where your Body Mass Index (BMI) is higher than 30.

There are various reasons of obesity such as lack of proper exercise, eating habits, psychological factors, endocrine glands problems, familial tendency. Males are at high risk during age 29 to 35 and females are at risk during the age 45 to 49. The risk increases with age. Various asanas can be practised effectively to reduce the weight, control obesity and achieve normal healthy condition of body and mind. The major asanas to control obesity are Vajrasana, Hastasana, Trikonasana and Ardha Matsyendrasana.

Their procedures, benefits and contraindications are listed below

Vajrasana [Thunderbolt Pose]

Procedure

  1. It is done in sitting posture.
    Stand on the knees with the lower legs , together and stretched backwards,, the two . big toes crossing each other.
    Lower the body and sit on your heels. Rest your buttocks on the heels and the thighs on the calf muscles.
    Keep the hands on the knees and keep the head straight.
    Concentrate on breathing, start inhalation and exhalation.

Benefits

  1. Vajrasana modifies the blood flow in the lower pelvic region. It increases the. efficiency of the digestive system.
  2. It helps to prevent acidity and ulcers by improving the digestion.
  3. It is a good meditative pose for those suffering from sciatica and severe lower back problems.
  4. Supta Vajrasana strengthens the muscles in back, neck and chest regions. It expands the chest and is good for lung problems.

Contraindications

  1. Vajrasana should not be practised by those suffering from severe knee pain.
  2. This asana should be avoided by recent surgery patients of legs or waist.
  3. If feel any pain in the ankles during Vajrasana, release the pose and massage the ankle with the hands.

Hastasana

Procedure

  1. Hastasana is done in a standing posture. Start with standing in Tadasana and twist the arms in a way that the palms are positioned away from the torso along with thumbs facing backward. Inhale and along with it brush away your arms out and towards the roof.
  2. Bring the arms parallel to one another and then without bending the shoulders push the palms , tightly together.
  3. Expand the elbows completely and reach upwards. Then slightly slant your head backwards and look at the thumbs.
  4. The shoulder blades need to be slithered down the spine
  5. Exhale along with tilting the torso towards the front from the joints of the hip into standing in a forward bending position.

Benefits

  1. It stretches the complete body and provides a good massage to the arms, spine, upper and lower back, ankles, hands, shoulders, calf muscles and thighs.
    It stretches the Organs of the stomach, and as a result enhances the digestive system and increases the capacity of the lungs.
    This asana helps in enhancing the blood circulation of the body.
    It helps in enhancing the body postures.
    It helps in alleviating nervousness and melancholy along with providing asenSe of Achievement.
    It helps in tightening the abdomen and helps in easing sciatica.

Contraindications

  1. In case of shoulder or neck injuries, experiencing dizziness’ While staring’upwards and in case of any other medical concerns.

Trikonasana [Triangle Pose]

Procedure

  1. This is done in a standing posture.
    Stand erect with feet about 3 feet apart with knees straight.
    Raise both the hands till they are in line with each other, parallel to the ground. Inhale when you are raising the hands.
    Now bend towards the right and slightly bend the knees and touch the right foot with the hands. Look up at the left hand. Exhale when you are bending down to touch the foot. Keep the eyes open throughout the practice.
    Return to the standing position.
    Repeat this with the left hand touching the left foot.
    Practise as many rounds as is comfortable.

Benefits

  1. Strengthens the legs, knees, ankles, arms and chest.
  2. Stretches and opens the lower back region, groin area, hamstrings, calves, shoulders, chest and spine.
  3. Increases mental and physical equilibrium.
  4. Helps improve digestion.
  5. Reduces anxiety, stress, back pain and sciatica Contraindications.
  6. Avoid doing this if suffering from migraine, diarrhoea, neck and back injuries.
  7. Those with high blood pressure may do this pose but without raising their hand overhead, as this may further raise the blood pressure.

Ardha Matsyendrasana (Half Spinal Twist Pose)

Procedure

  1. This is done in a sitting posture.
  2. Sit with legs straight and stretched in front of you.
    Bend the right leg, lift it and place it on the left side of the stretched left foot.
    Bend the left leg and bring close to the body. Place it under the right buttocks.
    Take the left arm around the right leg and grab the toes of the right leg with the left hand.
    Now turn towards the right and simultaneously move the right hand behind the back. Twist the back and the neck as far right as possible. Exhale while twisting the back and neck.
    Breathe normally and slowly in this position.
    Repeat with the other leg.

Benefits

  1. It is one of the best poses to improve the flexibility of the spine.
    It stimulates the liver and kidneys.
    It stretches the shoulders, hips and neck.
    It energises the spine.
    It stimulates the digestive fire in the belly.
    It relieves menstrual discomfort, fatigue, sciatica and backache.
    It is therapeutic for asthma and infertility.

Contraindications

  1. Avoid during pregnancy and menstruation due to the strong twist in the abdomen.
    People with heart, abdominal or brain surgeries should avoid this asana.
    Avoid those who are having peptic ulcer or hernia.
    Those with severe spinal problems should avoid.
    Those with mild slipped disc can benefit but in severe cases it should be avoided.

Diabetes – Yoga and Lifestyle

Diabetes is a better known lifestyle disease. It has become an epidemic worldwide. Yoga helps a lot to control and prevent this disease. Different asanas help to stimulate the production of insuline that helps in controlling diabetes. The asanas to control diabetes are

Bhujangasana

Procedure

  1. This is done in lying posture.
  2. Lie on the stomach and rest forehead on the floor.
  3. Keep the feet and toes together and touch the ground. Place the hands at shoulder level and palms on floor.
  4. Inhale and lift the head, chest, abdomen and keep the navel on the floor take five breaths at least.
  5. Exhale slowly come down to rest with hands below the head slowly.

Benefits

  1. It improves the blood circulation and energises the heart.
  2. It decreases menstrual irregularities in females.
  3. It strengthens muscles of chest, shoulders, arms and abdomen.
  4. It is effective in uterine disorder.
  5. It improves the function of reproductive organ.
  6. It improves the function of liver, kidney, pancreas and gall bladder.
  7. It helps to lose weight.
  8. It relieves menstrual discomfort and improves fertility.
  9. It reduces headache, anxiety, insomnia and sinusitis.
  10. It reduces abdominal fats and helps metabolism.

Contraindications

  1. Avoid during pregnancy.
  2. People having a hernia problem and backache should not do this asana.
  3. Avoid those who are suffering from ulcer, heart problem or any surgeries like spine and brain.

Paschimottanasana

Procedure

  1. This is done in sitting posture.
  2. Sit on the floor with the outstretched legs.
  3. Inhale and lengthen the abdomen then lift the chest.
  4. Exhale bend forwards from the hips. Keep the shoulders open and the head up.
  5. Reach forwards and hold the big toes in a lock with the middle and index fingers.
  6. Inhale, lengthen the torso, bring the sternum forward.
  7. Exhale, bring the chest and abdomen down to the thighs and the elbows out to the sides.
  8. Stay in this position for 5 deep breaths and relax the muscles while exhale.
  9. Focus on stretching the hamstrings rather than getting the head to the knees.

Benefits

  1. It stretches hamstrings, spine, shoulders and hip joints.
  2. It massages the pancreas and improves
  3. It relieves menstrual discomfort and improves fertility.
  4. It reduces headache, anxiety, insomnia and sinusitis.
  5. It reduces abdominal fats and helps metabolism.

Contraindications

  1. Pregnant women should avoid this asana.
  2. Avoid those who are suffering from slip disc or sciatica problem and asthma.
  3. Ulcer patients also avoid this asana.

Pawanmuktasana

Procedure

  1. This is done in lying position.
  2. Lie flat on the back and keep the legs, straight, relax breathe .deeply and regularly.
  3. Inhale slowly and lift the legs and bend in the knees. Bring upwards to the chest till the thigh touches to stomach.
  4. Hug the knees in place and lock the fingers.
  5. Place the nose tip between the knees.
  6. Exhale slowly and come back to the original position i,e. Shavasana.
  7. This is very beneficial for stomach as The results are very impressive.

Benefits

  1. It cures acidity, indigestion and constipation.
  2. It is helpful for those suffering from. gastrointestinal problems, arthritis, pain, heart problems and waist pain.
  3. It strengthens back muscle and cures back pain.
  4. It is very beneficial for reproductive organs and for menstruation disorder.

Contraindications

  1. Those who are suffering from high blood pressure, hernia, heart problems, slip disc and ulcer should avoid.
  2. During pregnancy and menstruation, women should avoid this.

Digestion – Yoga and Lifestyle

Ardha Matsyendrasana

Procedure

  1. This is done in sitting posture.
  2. Sit straight with stretching the legs in front of you then fold the left leg properly.
  3. Place the ankle near the hip.
  4. Place the right leg towards the outside of the left knee on the ground.
  5. Keep straight the left hand, while taking it near the outside of the right knee and hold the right toe.
  6. Fold the right hand behind the back and look backwards.
  7. The same should be repeated in the alternate position from the other side also.

Benefits

  1. It increases the flexibility and function of vertebrae of the spine.
  2. It helps to cure constipation and indigestion.
  3. It increases oxygen supply to the lungs.
  4. It is beneficial for slipped disc patients.
  5. It is helpful in treatment of diabetes, constipation, cervical, urinary, spinal problems.

Contraindications

  1. Avoid during pregnancy and menstruation cycle.
    People with cardiac problem, abdominal or brain surgeries should avoid this asana.
    People having peptic ulcer or hernia should avoid.
    Avoid those who are having severe spinal problems and mild slipped disc.

Asthma – Yoga and Lifestyle

Asthma is a universal chronic airway inflammatory disease of the air passage caused by excessive air sensitiveness and airflow obstruction. The disease can be managed, controlled and cured by performing various asanas that help in curing asthma.
The asanas to control asthma are

Sukasana

Procedure

  1. This is done in a sitting position.
  2. Sit cross legged on the floor or any other flat surface.
  3. Bring one foot over the opposite knee. Place both the palms on your knees and close your eyes.
  4. Breathe slowly and concentrate on the breathing pattern.
  5. Continue breathing in the same way for 5 minutes.

Benefits

  1. It helps to make the back stronger and elongate the knees and ankles.
  2. It is beneficial for opening the muscles of groin, hips and the outer thighs.
  3. It relieves from physical and mental tiredness and eliminates worries from the person’s mind.
  4. It can relive from backache as well as pain.
  5. It is a good posture to sit for a long time.

Contraindications

In case of severe knee and back injury, it is required to sit over the folded blanket or take the assistance of the bolster or pillow.

  1. If face difficulties in this pose then try placing the blanket or bolster under the thighs.

Chakrasana

Procedure

  1. This is done in lying posture.
    Lie down properly and look upward.
    Bring the feet closer to the hips and bend knees upward; keep a distance of about one foot between the feet.
    Bring up the hands near to the ears and put the palms on the ground as the fingers facing on the shoulders.
    Gradually, lift up the body in air by balancing on feet and rotate the head backward along with hands slowly.
    Reach the final position by stretching the whole body to forming a position look like a semi-circle.
    Now maintain this position as longer as possible. To reach the normal position, slowly lower down the body to touch the ground and release the hands and feet.

Benefits

  1. It helps to strengthen liver, pancreas, kidneys and heart.
    It is good for infertility, asthma and osteoporosis.
    It strengthens arms, shoulders, hands, wrists and legs buttocks, abdomen and spine.
    It stretches the chest and lungs.
    It helps to stimulate the thyroid and pituitary glands.
    It helps to increase energy and counteracts depression.

Contraindications

  1. Those who are suffering from diarrhoea, heart problems and hernia should avoid this.
    Avoid during pregnancy.
    Avoid those who have wrist, ankles and spine pain.
    Hypertension or hypotension person should avoid this asana.

Gomukhasana [Cow Face Pose)

Procedure

  1. This is a sitting asana.
    Sit erect and stretch both legs together in front, hands by the side, palm resting on the ground, fingers of the hands together.
    Fold right leg at the knee and place it on the ground by the side of the left buttock.
    Bringing the left leg from above the right leg, place it on the ground by the side of the right buttock.
    Now place the palms on the knee one above the other and sit erect.
    After some time return to the original position.
    Change the position of the legs i.e. by placing the right knee above and the left knee down and repeat this as much as you can.

Benefits

It helps to stretch and strengthen the muscles of the ankles, hips and thighs, shoulders, triceps, inner armpits and chest.
It is helpful in the treatment of sciatica.
It enhances the workings of the kidneys by stimulating it, thus helping those suffering from diabetes.
Regular practice can reduce stress and anxiety.

Contraindications

Those who are suffering from shoulder, knee or backpain should avoid this.
People suffering from any kind of knee injury/problem avoid this.

Parvatasana (Mountain Pose)

Procedure

  1. It down on the floor in a cross legged position or Sukhasana and Padmasana (lotus ppse).
  2. Bring the hands in the front and interlock the fingers.
  3. Breathe out and move the hands over the head. Keep the fingers interlocked and hands stretched upwards.
  4. Pull the torso in upward direction and stretch.
  5. Hold this position for a little longer and breathe normally.
  6. Bring down the hands as in original position. Unlock the hands and keep them aside and stretch the legs in the front and relax.

Benefits

  1. It helps to improve the blood circulation around the body.
  2. It reduces mental fatigue and improves the memory.
  3. It reduces muscle pain, especially in back and neck regions.
  4. It helps to reduce the problems of carpal tunnel syndrome, rheumatic stiffness.
  5. It helps in stimulating the synthesis of growth hormone.

Contraindications

  1. Don’t bend the elbow or overstrain the knees.
  2. Avoid any forward movement.
  3. Avoid hunching of the back during sitting position.
  4. People with hunch back, stiff shoulder should avoid.

Bhujangasana

Procedure

  1. This is done in lying posture.
  2. Lie on the stomach and rest forehead on the floor.
  3. Keep the feet and toes together and touch the ground. Place the hands at shoulder level and palms on floor.
  4. Inhale and lift the head, chest, abdomen and keep the navel on the floor and take five breaths at least.
  5. Exhale slowly and come down to rest with hands below the head slowly.
  6. It is equally effective in all the cases.

Benefits

  1. It gives a good stretch to the lungs, shoulders, chest and abdomen.
  2. It is helpful in stress release.
  3. It is known to open up the lungs and the heart i.e. it helps protect from diseases of bronchiatis.
  4. It relieves sciatica and asthma.

Contraindications

  1. Avoid if suffering from hernia, back injuries, carpal tunnel syndrome.
  2. Avoid during pregnancy.
  3. Avoid if undergone recent abdominal surgeries.

Paschimottasana

Procedure

  1. This is done in sitting position.
  2. Sit straight with the legs together by stretching in front. Keep the head neck and spine erect.
  3. Place the palms on the respective knees.
  4. Now bend the head and trunk slowly forward and catch the toes with the thumb, index and middle fingers without bending knees.
  5. Take a deep breath and exhale slowly.
  6. Bend the arm and try to touch the elbow on the floor.
  7. After few seconds slowly return to your starting position.
  8. Breathe normally.

Benefits

  1. It relieves stress and relaxes the mind.
  2. It removes anxiety, anger and irritability.
  3. It stretches the spine and brings flexibility.
  4. It helps to remove constipation and digestive disorder.
  5. It is useful for increasing height.
  6. It is helpful for women after childbirth.

Contraindications

  1. Pregnant women should avoid this asana.
  2. Avoid those who are suffering from slip disc or sciatica problem and asthma.
  3. Ulcer patients also avoid this practice.

Matsyanasana

Procedure

  1. This is done in lying position.
  2. Sit and fold both the legs together.
  3. Slowly lie down on the back and hold the elbows.
  4. Place the palms next to ears, towards the shoulder blade.
  5. Raise the trunk and head then press palms and waist and place the crown of the head on the floor.
  6. Place both the hands on the thighs then relax the elbow on the floor and try to hold the toe with the fingers.
  7. Crown of head and lower body on the floor making an arc shape on the back. Maintain this pose at least 50 or 100 counts.
  8. Now carefully release the fingers from the toes, push the palms on the floor then raise the head and the shoulder blades and take rest. Straighten the legs and take a position of Savasana.

Benefits

  1. It reduces headache caused by stiffness of the neck.
  2. It refreshes back muscles and the spinal cord.
  3. It cures asthma and respiratory disorders.
  4. It will be helpful to take deep sleep or normal sleep and get emancipate from insomnia due to work stress.

Contraindications

  1. Avoid those who are suffering from high or low blood pressure.
  2. Avoid those who are suffering from migraine.
  3. Avoid those who are suffering from ‘ serious lower-back or neck injury.

Hypertension – Yoga and Lifestyle

Blood pressure is the force of blood in the arteries. When this pressure becomes – abnormally high then it is called hypertension or high blood pressure. Stress is a major factor that causes hypertension. Yoga can be a very beneficial therapy for controlling blood pressure. The gentle, soothing practice of asanas settles both mind and body and reduces stress which causes hypertension. There are different types of asanas for the treatment of hypertension.

Tadasana [Mountain Pose]

Procedure

This is a standing asana.
Stand straight with the feet together.
Slowly lift the toes and place them back on the floor.
Pull up the kneecaps and squeeze the thighs.
Inhale and lift up from the waist.
Breathe and hold for 4 to 8 breaths.
Exhale and drop the shoulders down.

Benefits

  1. It improves body posture and reduces flat feet problem.
  2. Knees, thighs and ankles become stronger.
  3. Buttocks and abdomen get toned.
  4. It helps to alleviate sciatica.
  5. It also makes spine more agile.
  6. It helps to increase height and improve balance.
  7. It regulates digestive, nervous and respiratory systems

Contraindications

  1. Avoid during headaches.
  2. Avoid during insomnia.
  3. Avoid during low blood pressure.

Vajrasana [Thunderbolt Pose]

Procedure

  1. It is done in sitting posture.
  2. Stand on the knees with the lower legs together and stretched backwards, the two big toes crossing each other.
  3. Lower the body and sit on your heels. Rest your buttocks on the heels and the thighs on the calf muscles.
  4. Keep the hands on the knees and keep the head straight.
  5. Concentrate on breathing, start inhalation and exhalation.

Benefits

  1. It enhances blood circulation.
  2. It helps to improve digestion.
  3. Food gets digested well if one sits in Vajjasana after taking meals.
  4. It relieves excessive gas trouble or pain.
  5. Nerves of legs and thighs are strengthened.
  6. It helps to make knee and ankle joints flexible.
  7. It prevents from certain rheumatic diseases.

Contraindications

  1. Avoid if acute trouble or stiffness in foot, ankle and knees.
  2. Avoid during slip disc conditions.

Pawanmuktasana

Procedure

  1. This is done in lying position.
  2. Lie flat on the back and keep the legs straight, relax, breathe deeply and regularly.
  3. Inhale slowly and lift the legs and bend in the knees. Bring upwards to the chest till the thigh touches to stomach.
  4. Hug the knees in place and lock the fingers.
  5. Place the nose tip between the knees.
  6. Exhale slowly and come back to the original position i.e. Shavasana.
  7. This is very beneficial for stomach abs. The results are very impressive.

Benefits

  1. It helps to strengthen the back.
  2. It massages the abdominal muscles.
  3. It helps in digestion.
  4. It reduces belly fat.

Contraindications

  1. Those who are suffering from high blood pressure, hernia, heart problems, slip disc and ulcer should avoid.
  2. During pregnancy and menstruation, women should avoid this.

Ardha Chakrasana

Procedure

  1. This is a standing asana.
  2. Stand straight and arms alongside the body.
  3. Balance the weight equally on both feet.
  4. Breathing in, extend the arms overhead, palms facing each other.
  5. Bend backwards, push the pelvis forward, keeping the arms in line with the ears, elbows and knees straight, head up and lifting the chest towards the ceiling.
  6. Breathing out, bring the arms down and relax.

Benefits

  1. It stretches the front upper torso.
  2. It tones the arms and shoulder muscles.

Contraindications

  1. Avoid during headache.
  2. Avoid during serious back injury.

Bhujangasana

Procedure

This is done in lying posture.
Lie on the stomach and rest forehead on the floor.
Keep the feet and toes together and touch the ground. Place the hands at shoulder level and palms on floor.
Inhale and lift the head, chest, abdomen and keep the navel on the floor and take five breaths at least.
Exhale slowly and come down to rest with hands below the head slowly.

Benefits

  1. It increases immunity.
  2. It strengthens the back muscles and spinal cord.
  3. It helps to cure lumbago and lower back pain problems.
  4. It helps to cure kidney related diseases.
  5. It gives fast cure for disorders of ovaries in women.

Contraindications

  1. Avoid during pregnancy.
  2. People having a hernia problem and backache should not do this asana.
  3. Avoid those who are suffering from ulcer, heart problem or any surgeries like spine and brain.

We hope the given CBSE Class 12 Physical Education Notes Chapter 3 Yoga and Lifestyle will help you. If you have any query regarding NCERT Physical Education Class 12 Notes Chapter 3 Yoga and Lifestyle, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.


CBSE Physical Education Class 12 Notes

Chapter 1 Planning in Sports

Chapter 2 Sports and Nutrition

Chapter 3 Yoga and Lifestyle

Chapter 4 Physical Education and Sports for CWSN – Children with Special Needs: Divyangs

Chapter 5 Children and Sports

Chapter 6 Women and Sports

Chapter 7 Test and Measurement in Sports

Chapter 8 Physiology and Sports

Chapter 9 Sports Medicine

Chapter 10 Kinesiology, Biomechanics and Sports

Chapter 11 Psychology and Sports

Chapter 12: Training in Sports

About the author

cbselearners

Leave a Comment