CBSE Class 12 Geography Notes Migration


Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences is part of Class 12 Geography Notes: India – People and Economy for Quick Revision. Here we have given Class 12 Geography Notes: India – People and Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences.



Census of India records population and migration-related data of the country.
Many modifications in data related to migration have been done from the first census in 1881 to 1981 as:
A person who moves from one place to another in order to find work or better living conditions is known as ‘Migrant’
There are two types of migrants on the basis of enumeration of the census:

  • Life-Time Migrant If a person’s place of birth is different from the place of census enumeration, then he is known as lifetime migrants. As per census 2001, this group reported 307 million persons (30%) and as per 2011, this group reported 36.7%.
  • Migrant by place of the last residence If a person’s place of last residence is different from the place of enumeration, then he is known as migrant by place of last residence. As per census 2001, this group reported 315 million migrants (31 per cent). According to 2011 census, £5.36 crore migrants (37%) and settled in a place different from their last residence.

Streams or Types of Migration

In general, there are two types of migration: Internal Migration It refers to the movement of people within a country or nation. This can be intra-state and inter-state migration.
There are four streams of migration identified under the internal migration:

  1. Rural to Rural (R-R)
  2. Rural to Urban (R-U)
  3. Urban to Urban (U-U)
  4. Urban to Rural (U-R)

Women migrants are highest in both intra-state and inter-state migration, short distance rural to rural migration stream because of their marriage. Whereas male migrants are highest in rural to urban streams of inter-state migration due to economic reasons.

International Migration It refers to the movement of people out of the country or out of the geopolitical border. India experiences a large number of international migration mostly from neighbouring countries.
As per census 2001, there were more than 5 million persons reported from other countries in India.

Out of these 96% came from the neighbouring countries as:
Bangladesh   – 3.0 million
Pakistan        – 0.9 million
Nepal             – 0.5 million

Spatial Variation in Migration
In India, there is an uneven spatial variation in migration in terms of in-migration and out-migration.
States Receiving High Number of In-Migrants
Maharashtra is the largest migrants receiving state (2.3 million). Besides this, Delhi, Gujarat, Haryana and other urbanised areas attract the high number of migrants.
States with High Out-Migrants
Uttar Pradesh (-2.6 million), Bihar (-1.7 million) and some other backward states have largest number of net out. Urban agglomerations are largely expanding because of high Intra-state immigration. For e.g.
Greater Mumbai received the highest number of in-migrants.

Causes of Migration

The reasons/causes of migration can be put under two categories:
Push Factors These are factors which urge people to leave their place of residence or origin. Some of them are as follows:

  1. A natural disaster like flood, drought, cyclonic storms, earthquake, tsunami, etc.
  2. Political/Local conflicts like-war, riots.
  3. Poverty, lack of employment opportunities.
  4. High population pressure on land.
  5. Lack of basic infrastructural facilities like health care, education, etc.

Pull Factors These refer to factors which attract people from different places. Some of them are as follows:

  1. Better opportunities for education.
  2. Better health facilities.
  3. Source of entertainment.
  4. According to an estimation, about 38% of males migrate for work and employment whereas only 3% female migrates for the same reason. (But according to census 2011 there is a downfall of 4.2% as compared to 2001 census).
  5. About 65% (69.7% according to 2011 census) of women migrate because of marriage, whereas only 2% males migrate ! for the same reason.

This migration of males (marriage) is higher in Meghalaya.

Consequences of Migration

Migration is a consequence of the uneven – distribution of opportunities over space. People : tends to move from place of low opportunity and low safety to the place of higher opportunity and ; better safety. Results can be observed in i economic, social, cultural, political and, demographic terms.

Economic Consequences

These consequences are positive as well as negative:
Positive Remittances are important for the economy of a country. As migrants sent remittances to their family members for food, repayment of loans/debts, treatment, marriages, children’s education, agricultural inputs, construction of houses, etc.
Green Revolution in the rural areas of Punjab, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh was a success because of the migrants from rural areas of ‘ Eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Odisha.
Negative Over crowding due to unregulated migration. Development of unhygienic slums in industrially developed states like Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Delhi.

Demographic consequences

These consequences can be both positive or negative:
Positive Redistributing of the population within a country. The process of urbanisation is dependent on rural-urban migration.
Negative Imbalance in demographic structure. Age and skill selective out-migration created an imbalance in the demographic structure of rural areas. Age and sex-composition are seriously affected in states of Uttarakhand, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Eastern Maharashtra due to migration. The same situation happens in the recipient states.

Social consequences

These consequences are both positive as well as negative:
Positive Migrants work as an agent of social change. They diffuse new ideas of science and technology, family planning, girls education, etc from one place to another place. People also bring different cultures with them which help to break the narrow considerations and broaden up the mental horizon of the people.
Negative Anonymity increases and creates social vacuum and feeling of ejection. This feeling ultimately results in anti-social activities such as crime, drug abuse, theft, etc.

Environmental consequences

Negative Large scale rural-urban migration leads to overcrowding in the cities and puts tremendous pressure on the infrastructure. It also results in an unplanned and haphazard growth of cities in which slums and shanty colonies are very common. Overcrowding is also related to over-exploitation of natural resources and cities are facing serious problems of water shortage, air and water pollution, the problem of sewage disposal and management of solid wastes.

Other consequences

When male migrants leave their wives in rural areas, this puts extra physical and mental pressure on women.

  • Migration of women for education and employment gives them more freedom, on the other hand, it also adds to their vulnerability

We hope the given CBSE Class 12 Geography Notes: India – People and Economy Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences will help you. If you have any query regarding Class 12 Geography Notes: India – People and Economy Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.

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Class 12 Geography Notes: India – People and Economy

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