E-Services and ICT is part of Class 12 Informatics Practices Notes for Quick Revision. Here we have given NCERT Class 12 Informatics Practices Notes Chapter 15 E-Services and ICT.
- 1 e-Governance
- 2 Benefits to Citizens of e-Governance
- 3 e-Governance Model
- 4 e-Business Models
- 5 e-Learning
- 6 Features of e-Learning
- 7 Societal Impacts of e-Learning
- 8 Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
- 9 Social Benefits of ICT
- 10 ICT Challenges and Solutions
- 11 Class 12 Informatics Practices Notes
The term e-Governance implies ‘Governance with the help of technology’. In actual, it is a two way protocol, i.e. citizens or businesses can also interact with government 24 x 7. Through e-Governance, the government services will be available to citizens in a convenient, efficient and transparent manner. All government services (like delivery of government services and information etc.,) become available to any common person at their own place with the help of e-Governance.
According to the world bank, “e-Governance refers to the use by government agencies of information technologies (such as WAN, Internet and mobile computing) that have the ability to transform relations with citizens, businesses and other arms of government.” These technologies can serve a variety of different ends viz., better delivery of government services to citizens, improved interactions with business and industry, citizens empowerment through access to information or more efficient government management. The resulting benefits can be less corruption, increased transparency, convenience and cost reductions.
The National e-Governance Plan (NeGP) has been formulated by the government to promote e-Governance on a massive scale. The vision of NeGP states “Make all Government services accessible to the common man in his locality, through common service delivery outlets and ensure efficiency, transparency and reliability of such services at affordable costs to realise the basic needs of the common man.”
Benefits to Citizens of e-Governance
There are various benefits of e-Governance for citizens. Some of them are listed below:
- e-Governance makes it easier for citizens to conduct their affairs with government.
- Citizens can access government services from their homes and offices, without having to work within a bounded scope of limited office hours.
- It enables electronic self-services for routine citizen interactions (like paying bills, filling forms online, etc.,) so that government can focus more attention on other complicated tasks.
- It also improves the efficiency and transparency in government policies, because of this transparency, it also helps in eliminating corruption.
- It greatly simplifies the process of retrieving information regarding any department of government.
- It ensures that information regarding every work of public welfare is easily available to all citizens.
- The information regarding every activity of government is easily available, it would make every government department more responsible as they know that every action of theirs is being monitored.
There are four groups that are to be mainly targeted in e-Governance concepts. These groups are government, citizens, employee and businesses/interest groups. The interaction between these groups takes place in four forms:
1. Government-to-Citizens (G2C)
Government-to-Citizens (abbreviated as G2C) is the online non-commercial interaction of local and central government and the private individuals.
2. Government-to-Business (G2B)
Government-to-Business (abbreviated as G2B) is the online commercial interaction between local and central government and the commercial business sector, rather than private individuals (G2C).
3. Government-to-Employees (G2E)
Government-to-Employees (abbreviated as G2E) is the online interactions through instantaneous communication tools between government units and their employees. G2E is an effective way to provide e-Learning to the employees, bring them together and to promote knowledge sharing among them.
4. Government-to-Government (G2G)
Government-to-Government (abbreviated G2G) is the online non-commercial interaction between government organisations, departments and authorities and other government organisations, departments and authorities. Its use is common in the UK, along with G2C and G2B.
The challenges faced by e-Governance are not the technology or the Internet issues.
The real issue is with the organisation, some of them are given below:
- Information transparency.
- Redefining rules and procedures.
- Legal issues.
- Infrastructure, skill and awareness.
- Access to right information.
- Interdepartmental collaboration.
- Tendency to resist the change in work culture.
Other challenges are the reach of e-Governance due to the majority of Indian population (70%) which lives in villages. These include the following problems:
- Assessment of local needs and customising e-Governance solutions to meet those needs.
- Building human capacities.
- Content (local content based on local language).
The societal impacts of e-Governance can be measured through the trust and satisfaction generated through it.
- Cost of the availing service.
- Waiting time before the work is done.
- Number of trips to the office to get the work done.
- Total elapsed time in availing service.
According to the study of IIM (Indian Institute of Management), the e-Governance portals have indeed helped citizens:
- by reducing bribes by 50% to 90%.
- by reducing the number of trips to government offices by nearly 11% to 27%.
- by reducing waiting time from 10% to 60%.
e-Governance in India has resulted in positive as well as negative impacts on the society.
The positive impacts of e-Governance on society are:
- It has improved the efficiency of administration and service delivery.
- It provides benefits to people in the form of reduced cost of availing the services.
- e-Governance programs have resulted in increased public participation.
- These programs have resulted in increased transparency and increased accountability of government offices.
- It has proved successful in keeping a tab on corruption to some extent.
The negative impacts of e-Governance on society are:
- Benefits to people who live in rural and remote areas do not get any preference because of lack of computerisation in those areas.
- Due to many incompatibilities of hardware and software also it has prevented people to get full benefit.
e-Governance Problems and their Solutions
On January 1, 2000, Dhar district began the new millennium with a mass-based information revolution. Computers in 21 major centres in five Blocks of the district were connected through an intranet network. These computers have been established in Gram Panchayats. They have been called Soochanalayas. From the Soochanalaya, user-charge based services are given to the masses and at the same time the information technology related developmental needs of government departments and Panchayats are met free of cost. This Intranet has been named Gyandoot.
For this project problems of rural areas were identified through interactions with the people in these areas. And, it was learned that due to lack of information regarding the proper mandi rates not only in the local mandis but in the benchmark mandis (where the local mandi trader sells his own purchases), the farmers are unable to get the best price for their agricultural produce. Villagers also informed that copies of land records are difficult to obtain since the patwari is often on tour and one patwari is responsible for several villages. The villager needing a copy of the land records has to go out in search of the patwari who may or may not be available on that particular day at his headquarters.
For small complaints or for giving applications, people had to go to Block, Tahsil or District headquarters, which resulted in waste of time, money and potential livelihood earnings. From the Soochanalayas, rates of grains and vegetables of nearly a dozen mandis, copies of revenue maps or khasras or B1 may be obtained. In addition, income certificates, caste certificates, domicile certificates, demarcation applications, applications for obtaining landholder’s loan passbook (rin-pustika) etc., may be sent on-line.
On the preparation of the desired certificate/rin-pustika, the information will be sent through e-mail to the concerned Soochanalaya. These will be prepared in a maximum period of 10 days although the attempt will be to provide them much earlier. Complaints regarding Government schemes / programs / institutions / employees may also be sent through the net and in a maximum period of seven days, preferably less, reply regarding their disposal will be sent back to the concerned Soochanalaya.
General Problems and Solutions
Power Back Up
Keeping in view the widespread power cuts in rural areas, the Soochanalayas have been equipped with UPS systems. The UPS system is sufficient to run the computer as well as the printer at for five hours at a stretch from an Exide battery. These UPS may be charged on single-phase electricity in only 8 hours. Thus, the system is largely proof from rural power cuts.
Reliability of telephone connectivity
Out of 21 Soochanalayas, 7 Soochanalayas already have Optical Fibre Connectivity (OFC). By end of July 2000, 10 out of the remaining 14 was also be connected through Optical Fibre lines. Thus, the telephone network is technically quite suitable for supporting the proper performance of the intranet.
Project “Bhoomi” in the State of Karnataka
Karnataka, being an agrarian state, was faced with the problem of maintaining immense land records and the work was done manually by the revenue officials. The records regarding the current ownership of land, cropping pattern and village amps etc., for three to four villages was the duty assigned to ‘Patwari’, who was also entrusted with registering tankers of land due to sales or other reasons. He had to update the land records as per procedure, which could take years for obvious reasons.
The recently launched project ‘Bhoomi’ a web-enabled software that facilitated the olive retrieval of land information facilitated computerisation of entire 20 million records of land ownership of 6.7 million farmers in the state of Karnataka. At present, computerised land record kiosk popularly called “Bhoomi Center” is functional in all the 177 talukas in the state. These kiosks are used to provide RTC online of farmers at a fee of ?15.
e-Business is the process of buying, selling, transferring, exchanging of products and services, etc., with the help of Internet. It is useful for both businessmen and customers, as businessmen can improve their business according to the feedback of customers and customers can get a limitless variety for products. Furthermore, it is also time and money saving for both sides, i.e. customers and businessmen. e-Business allows companies to link their external and internal processes more efficiently and effectively. A website is one of the most common implementations of e-Business. e-Business can be considered as a business even if it does not buy and sell products over the Internet, as the term refers to business activities that are assisted by the Internet.
Some e-Business models are as follows:
1. Business-to-Business (B2B)
It applies to businesses buying from and selling to each other over the Internet. Online access of data, including expected shipping date, delivery date and shipping status, provided either by the seller or a third party provider is widely supported by B2B models. It describes transactions between businesses, such as a business between a manufacturer or a wholesalers or between a wholesalers or a retailer.
2. Business-to-Consumer (B2C)
It describes activities of business serving and consumers with products and services. Common B2C e-Business models include e-Ships and e-mails. An example of a B2C transaction would be a person buying a pair of shoes from a retailer. The transactions that led to the shoes being available for purchase, which is the purchase of the leather, laces, rubber, etc. However, the sale of the shoes from the shoemaker to the retailer would be considered a B2B transaction.
3. Consumer-to-Business (C2B)
Consumer-to-Business (C2B) applies to any consumer that sell a product or service to a business over the Internet. One example of this e-Business model is Priceline.com where bidders (or customers) set their prices for items such as airline tickets or hotel rooms and a sellers decides whether to supply them. The demand for C2B e-Business will increase over the next few years due to customer’s desire for greater convenience and lower prices.
4. Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C)
It involves the electronically facilitated transactions between consumers through some third party. A common example is the online auction, in which a consumer posts an item for a sell and other consumer bid to purchase it, a third party generally charges a commission. eBay is the most successful C2C online auction website.
5. Business-to-Employee (B2E)
Business-to-Employee (B2E) electronic commerce uses an intrabusiness network, which allows companies to provide products and/or services to their employees. Typically, companies use B2E networks to automate employee-related corporate processes.
6. Business-to-Government (B2G)
Business-to-Government (B2G) is a derivative of B2B marketing and often referred to as a market definition of ‘public sector marketing’, which encompasses marketing products and services to various government levels-including federal, state and local-through integrated marketing communications techniques such as strategic public relations, branding, marcom, advertising and web-based communications.
Benefits of e-Business
Business of all sizes in all sectors are using the Internet in many different ways to work with partners and suppliers, for internal activities and for procurement such as knowledge sharing and new product development and much more, so e-Business impacts almost every citizen world wide. The e-Business provides benefits for not only for sellers but also for buyers.
Benefits of e-Business for Businesses
- It promotes products globally.
- It reduces costs of production by reducing overheads.
- It allows 24 x 7 accesses to the firm’s products and services.
- It improves communications, information and knowledge sharing.
- It improves speed of response.
- It removes location and availability restrictions.
- Acquisition of new customers and increased sales.
- Better transfer of best practices.
- It provides more accurate information and improves customer service experience.
- It improves employee motivation through more flexible working methods.
- Results in cost saving.
- It improves the efficiency and productivity of the supply chain.
Benefits of e-Business for Customers
- It provides facility to reach various products and market by sitting one place.
- Customers compare various products by single click.
- It is time saving procedure, i.e. you can buy any products or services while doing office work or home tasks.
- It breaks down the time barriers because the Internet is available 24 hours a day and seven days a week.
- It allow to broaden customers reach by eliminating geographic boundaries.
- Customers feel free for selection of products and services without any salesman’s mental pressures.
Societal Impacts of e-Business
The impact of e-Business on society is varied in different business models. For some of the models, it has really benefited the business and society both but for some others, people are not showing their interest towards e-Business. The social impacts of e-Business can also be measured in terms of satisfaction and trust generated through it. Satisfaction and trust are quality factors that can be quantified only through the following factors:
- Availability of service.
- Waiting time, before the work is done.
- Effectiveness and efficiency of the service being provided.
- Information of the user is secure.
According to various studies, e-Business has successfully worked on the following factors:
- Reduction in cost and transactions.
- Improved customer service.
- Increased productivity.
- Reduced supply chain process.
- Access international market.
Some of the Societal changes are given below:
- Internet users are being increased day by day and not only college going students and young one’s are using Internet and its services, Infact each age group is taking interest in Internet.
- Increased in online payments because online payments are mostly done by debit or credit cards.
- Increase in non-metro shoppers.
- Middle class are attracted towards low cost flights. But, technology changes our society in both ways.
There are some issues that have impacted the society are:
1. Multiple Issues of Trust
Sometimes the online buyers are not receiving their products as per their expectations. There have been also some cases where same information is posted in various websites with different names like matrimonial sites where people post their profile at multiple sites with different names. For such issues, the e-Business need to guarantee about the quality of the product and be extra cautious and must perform a cross check before posting any information on websites.
2. Cyber Crime
As the cyber laws in India are still in their primitive stage, Internet users are not aware of the cyber crimes and their consequences at first place and cons still find their ways to perform frauds or cause havoc on innocent lives by playing with their private information.
3. Poor Telecom and Infrastructure for Reliable Connectivity
The speed of Internet connectivity is slow even after the boom in telecom industry and the access costs are high and connections are unreliable.
The rapid development of Internet and e-Business is not only creating profitable economic opportunities but also it is facing many challenges. There are six fundamental challenges in e-Business. These are:
1. Becoming Customer-Centric
In order to develop an effective e-Business strategy, a company must make the shift from being product-centric to become customer centric. By placing customer needs at the center of every decision, the entire e-Business strategy will become more effective and profitable for the company. A company which fails to become customer centric will make decisions that do not make it easier for their customers to do business with them and the result of this will be that their customers may turn around to other companies.
2. Technological Challenges
Various issues pertaining to the implementation of new technology includes choice of Internet payment instrument, its inter operability of technology, technological application, etc.
3. Legal and Regulatory Challenges
Difficulty in regulating and enforcing standards, due to lack of consistent rules and policies, customs and taxation uncertainties and government intervention.
4. Security Challenges
These challenges include lack of trust of customers and their fear of intrusion of privacy, which makes them reluctant to involve in e-transactions. In addition, the frantic frauds taking place over the Internet and lack of awareness of customers about the availability of services poses a challenge to businesses.
5. Providing Best Practices
Primary reasons for poor web sales performance are incorrect prospect targeting and ineffective sales support while customers are trying to buy. To go beyond electronic catalogues and help to solve a customer’s problem, a website must provide guidance and advice to customers for define their problem or question and must provide potential solutions.
6. Adopting an Integrated Approach
One of the biggest challenges faced by companies today is the temptation to isolate Internet/web marketing and website initiatives (and also the whole e-Business strategy) from traditional or off-line marketing strategies. To succeed, one must integrate his e-business activities with other traditional sales and marketing activities, from telephone sales to print advertising.
e-Business Problems and their Solutions
Maintaining IT Resources
Its resources are essential to the automation of external business processes. But, because of the scarcity of IT resources some challenges may be faced while maintaining them. e.g. while maintaining human resources certain questions may arise as how to retain staff, as competitors offer them 25 to 50 per cent salary increase? and how to keep employees challenged and interested in their work, while managing a tight training budget?
The key is to provide a forward-thinking work environment. Most IT professionals enjoy being ‘re-tooled’ to keep up with the market. Of course, competitive salaries and deferred benefits are also important long-term considerations that play a major role in retaining employees. In brief, do not sit back and watch them, or someone will steal them away.
Security concerns related to e-Businesses are two fold. First, there is the threat of outsider access to business documents exchanged over the Internet, a Value Added Network (VAN) or a direct communications link. The other concern, which is relatively new, involves the vulnerability of internal systems. Most organisations offer some type of outside access to internal systems. Even if you have no direct link to an ISP, outsiders can intrude if an employee dials out and surfs the net.
To address security concerns, may businesses install firewall technologies, define use policies and tighten employee access to outside lines and networks.
It is a concept which allows students or any learner to learn anything at anytime, anywhere with the help of technology. Basically, it is a mean of teaching and learning through technology. It can be CD-Rom based, network based, Intranet based or Internet based. A number of other terms are also used to describe this mode of teaching and learning.
They include online learning, virtual learning, distributed learning, network and web based learning. It includes text, video, audio, virtual environments, animation, etc., to make the study material more understandable for the student or learner. e-Learning is not intended to replace conventional methods of learning such as classroom teaching. Its aim is to create a rich learning environment where technology is used to deliver the content and maximising the individual’s participation in the learning process.
Benefits of e-Learning
e-Learning has benefited in many ways to the traditional classrooms training. It offers many benefits to both the learner and the trainer.
Benefits to Learners/Students
- Availability The very first benefit towards learner is its availability anywhere and anytime.
- Self Paced e-Learning technology is self paced. Most of the e-Learning programs are the programs that can be taken when possible according to the convenience.
- Interactivity The self motivation engages users, pushing them rather than pulling them through training.
- Confidence Refreshed or quick reference materials are available. It helps the learner to easily understand a topic which increases the confidence of that learner to learn that material.
Benefits to the Trainer/Teacher and an Organisation
- Reduced Cost Reduce in overall cost; the most influential factor in adopting e-Learning is the reduced cost. The elimination of costs associated with student travels, meeting room rents, lodging and meals are directly quantifiable.
- Consistent Delivery e-Learning eliminates the problems faced because of different instructor’s teaching, i.e. difference in methods of teaching the same subject. Consistent delivery of content is possible with asynchronous, self-paced e-Learning.
- Learning Times Reduced e-Learning moves faster than traditional method, an average of 40 to 60 per cent as found by Brandon Hall.
- Fast Updating and Cost Effectiveness It is quickly updated. Online e-Learning content are easy to keep up to date because the updated materials are simply uploaded to the server. It is cheaper than reprinting manuals and retraining instructors.
- Easily Manageable It can be easily managed for large group of students.
Features of e-Learning
e-Learning is a process of gaining knowledge from the place, where you went through Internet in their required fields. This process is like a single tree, under which lots of things are arranged to make the global educational system more uniform, quality-rich and cost-effective.
Some features of this process are:
- e-Learning is self-paced which gives students/trainees a chance to speed up or slow down according to their convenience.
- It is self-directed process that allows students to choose content and tools appropriate to their differing interests, needs and skill levels.
- Accommodates multiple learning styles using a variety of delivery methods more effective for certain learners.
- These are designed according to the learner.
- There are no geographical barriers.
- 24 x 7 accessibility anytime, anywhere, which makes scheduling easy and allows a greater number of people to attend classes.
- It offers on-demand access.
- Travel time and associated costs are reduced.
- Overall student costs are frequently less like tution fee, residence rent, food, child care, etc.
- Potentially lower costs for companies needing training and for the providers.
- It enhances computer and Internet skills.
- Draws upon hundreds of years of established pedagogical principles.
Societal Impacts of e-Learning
e-Learning technology has proven to be a new and revolutionary tool for all age groups of people whether he/she is a student of school or college or working executives.
The impact of e-Learning on society can be summarised as:
1. No Boundaries
e-Learning is an Internet based technology, so it’s available without the boundaries of geography, same courses or study materials are available to students or learners from all across the globe. Thus, e-Learning is beneficial for those people also who belong to those areas where physical reach of education is limited.
2. Availability for Working Class
e-Learning offers flexibility in terms of time and learning pace has proved a boon for the working people. Now, many people can enhance their skills at their time at their own pace.
3. High Drop-out Rate
A percentage of beginners often drop out the course midway because e-Learning course lacks in interactive set-up like a physical classroom. If there is not a proper follow up by the instructor, they leave the course and drop out.
e-Learning is an active and growing industry in challenges that must be countered for the successful
These challenges are as follows:
1. Access to Technology
Due to high cost of the technology they are not available to many of the people.
2. No Verbal Communication
In online classes, students are unable to get participated in numerous classes such as speech, drama, debate, presentation, etc., which makes it necessary for student to make verbal presentation in front of entire class.
3. Self Discipline
The basic attraction of online education is its freedom and flexibility, by which students can study whenever they want according to their convenience but the fact of the matter is that this freedom at times leads to procrastination.
So, students need to have good self-discipline if they wish to be successful in their online degree program.
4. Required High Level of Motivation
In a traditional class, students communicate with their teachers and class fellows, which help them to get their enthusiasm boosted and motivated for learning. While in e-Learning technology distance learner has rare communication with their faculty and virtual class fellows, which gives them a feeling of being isolated.
e-Learning Problems and solutions
Cloud computing has shown to be a very effective paradigm for e-Learning according to its features such as on demand self-services since the users are able to use their services according to their requirement. The main problem faced in cloud computing is security.
Secure and efficient data exchange across the enterprise and clouds, as well as secure application connectivity are the major security concerns. Sensitive data of educational institutions like students records, employees accounts and research results etc., must be paid special attention.
In cloud, there are many solutions for ensuring security and protection of data like mask the data, firewalls and encryption and key management. To choose solution for data protection and security the risk and cost of implementation must also be considered. To protect data against unauthorised access in the cloud environment data encryption can be used. The data can be encrypted before transferring it in the cloud. .
Varying Learning Capability
Of course, people rarely learn in exactly the same way. They also may vary in their attitudes and abilities from day to day, or even from moment to moment. Designers often over simplify their approach, referring to the ‘learner’, implying that all learners are clone-like copies of an ideal model. But learning styles, abilities and preferences may vary considerably. Some learners are primarily verbal while others are highly visual. From an overall sensory perspective, different theories have demonstrated that people tend to learn predominantly through one of their senses.
e.g. auditory, visual or tactile. Learning styles are therefore characterised set of conditions under which learners prefer to work and are commonly divided into these there main categories visual (for those who learn best by seeing images or reading text) auditory (for those who prefer hearing or listening) and kinesthetic (for those who learn best by doing).
Research suggests that what is presented graphically in a virtual lesson is almost always more easily remembered, regardless of the user’s preferred learning style. Therefore, as a solution for the above stated problems the temporal evolution of a single virtual class may be very much effective, i.e. a passive introduction may help the student to acquire the key concept effectively and efficiently (e.g. watching a movie, listening to a lecture); and interactive-constrained explanation may then introduce further details, leaving the student free to learn by doing, observing and reasoning, but allowing some degree of structured control, to make sure that the conclusion is not missed (e.g. moving through a structured game, playing simulations with limited variables).
An interactive-unconstrained module may then leave the learner to freely explore and discover additional knowledge, once the essential core has been acquired (e.g. exploring an environment, browsing the Web or an encyclopedia; some unguided observation and explorations may also be considered to preliminarily catch the attention at the beginning of the class (e.g. particularly effective for Physics classes).
Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
ICT includes different communication devices, such as, radio, television, cellular phones, computer hardware’s, software’s, etc., as well as various services and applications associated with them, such as video conferencing and distance learning. In other words, it refers to the concepts which are related to the term information technology and communication technology. These both technologies are different and interrelated to each other. Information technology consists of two words Information and Technology. If you know the two words you can understand the word information technology together.
The term – Information refers to the representation of knowledge such as facts, data or opinions in any medium or for, including textual, numerical, narrative or audio visual forms and technology is the practical form of scientific knowledge or the science of application of knowledge to practical. Basically, ICT is the technology which supports activities and involves information.
Such activities include gathering, processing, storing and presenting data. Increasingly these activities also involve collaboration and communication. It is the next form of IT. Hence, IT has become ICT (Information and Communications Technology). The role of mobile phones have played a very vital role in the impact of ICT as it has decreased the problem of communication in long distances.
Impact of ICT on Society
Information and Communications Technology has created a huge impact on human society. It includes both positive and negative impacts, which are described below:
Positive Impacts of ICT
ICT allows the members of society to access the information in a huge amount.
This can have numerous positive impacts such as:
- Improving the way of communication time to time.
- Allowing several users to participate in a worldwide society.
- Increasing new opportunities for students (in terms of education).
Negative Impacts of ICT
ICT can have numerous negative effects on society such as:
- Causing a communication gap between those who can access the information and those who cannot.
- Causing ethical problems due to the type of material provided by ICT.
- Reducing levels of education and understanding due to the vast amount of incorrect
Social Benefits of ICT
The main benefits are in the field of health, workplace and education.
Some of them are explained below:
- Ease and simplicity of communicating in the business.
- Able to reach deadlines within time.
- Easy to access information.
- Easily backup is done.
- Records are kept and maintained easily.
- Educational projects are easily done.
- The things done are kept secret and confidential.
Impacts of ICT on economic benefits:
- Has raised the employment percentage gradually.
- Raised the percentage of income tax deposition.
- Rural areas are getting in touch with the technologies.
- Percentage of exports and imports quantity are raised.
- Trades and rural development has increased.
ICT has given new business opportunities and lead to diversification of activities like running Internet cafe’s and selling phone calls etc.
ICT Challenges and Solutions
ATM challenges and their proposed solutions
1. Access Issues for deaf-blind users
Access to ATMs for people who are both deaf and blind is particularly difficult. There are often subtle audio cues used by blind ATM users (such as beeps, clicks, thermal printer and so on), which partially compensates for not being able to read the ATM screen. People who are both deaf and blind would have no such cues to assist them.
Braille output for important screen information would be the only option available to this group.
2. Dyslexia and people who can’t read
For people,who are dyslexia, letters and numbers regularly get transposed or out of order and because of this disability they have problems in reading letters or text.
A voice enabled ATM would result in less confusing and error-prone ATM interactions. People from a non-English speaking background would benefit from voice guidance in addition to the screen display, particularly when many can speak simple English, but have difficulties reading it comfortably. It is commonly recognised that everyone has a preference for either audio, visual or tactile modes of learning and communication. Voice output for ATMs would accommodate the significant proportion of our society which is audio-oriented.
3. Travel reservation software problems and solutions
Travel reservation websites have become robust businesses that handle a tremendous volume of consumer searches, requests and transactions for making all their travel plans with frequent flyer miles, preferred hotel guest car rental points, hotel reservations and countless other online interactions. These information hubs provide everything a traveller could want in preparation for their next destination.
While travel reservation sites provide an important service for consumers, the flipside is that they require a high degree of technical oversight due to the fact that the sites variables are changing rapidly and are updated dynamically and in real time. Consider the flood of data and volume of software code required for a single reservation or transaction on one of these major travel sites, then multiply that thousands of times over with the demands of real time as thousands of consumers research, reserve and purchase flight, car rental and hotel options.
Add to that the requirements of special offers, deals and the unique attributes of each person’s frequent flyer or executive club profiles. Then magnify this even more during the many peak travel times that occur throughout the year, or the demands of weather-related events that disrupt travel and it becomes apparent how a single software glitch or a site crash can result in major revenue losses, not to mention the residual consumer frustration and damage to the brand.
Because of this, with the exception of small airlines or hotels with more basic informational websites, simple software development tools are becoming overwhelmed by the intense demands of these complex sites that are constantly processing a tremendous volume of reservations and transactions. Software Configuration Management (SCM) is a solution to all the problems associated with travel reservation websites.
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Class 12 Informatics Practices Notes
Chapter 1 Computer Networking Class 12 Notes
Chapter 2 Open Source Concepts Class 12 Notes
Chapter 3 Java Programming Fundamentals (Revision Tour-I) Class 12 Notes
Chapter 4 Swing Controls (Revision Tour-II) Class 12 Notes
Chapter 5 GUI Programming and Access Specifier Class 12 Notes
Chapter 6 Inheritance Class 12 Notes
Chapter 7 Accessing MySQL Database Using ODBC/JDBC Class 12 Notes
Chapter 8 Web Application Development Class 12 Notes
Chapter 9 HTML and XML Class 12 Notes
Chapter 10 Fundamentals of Database Class 12 Notes
Chapter 11 SQL Functions and Table Joins Class 12 Notes
Chapter 12 Integrity Constraints and Tables Class 12 Notes
Chapter 13 Front-End Interface Class 12 Notes
Chapter 14 Back-End Database Class 12 Notes
Chapter 15 E-Services and ICT Class 12 Notes