PEd Notes (Class 12)

CBSE Class 12 Physical Education Chapter 9 Sports Medicine

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Sports medicine is a branch of healthcare. It deals with the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of Injuries related to participation in sports and/or exercise.

The scope of sports medicine
In the field of physical education and sports, the fields of various sub-disciplines of sports medicine are utilized. Without the knowledge of the scope of sports medicine, it is difficult to carry a sportsperson performance at apex level. There are following the scope of sports medicine:
a)   Sports and first aid
b)  Human anatomy and physiology
c)   Female and sports
d)  Study of the optimal load for different age groups
e)   Scientific promotion of games and sports
f)   Sports injury rehabilitation
g)   Fitness for games and sports.

Aims of sports medicine a)   To provide information to athletes about injuries.
b)  To provide knowledge about the causes of injuries.
c)   To provide means or treatment for sports injuries and for rehabilitation of injuries.
d)  To provide knowledge about the preventive measures of sports injuries.
e) To aware the sports person & athlete about the different kinds of injury in respect of different games.
f) To concentrate on the causes of injury

Concept of Sports medicine

  • Bio-mechanics related to sports
  • Effect of attitude on endurance performance
  • Psychological aspect performance
  • Nutrition & metabolism in relation to competition & performance
  • Recommendations of FISM(the International Federation of Sports Medicine at world level)
  • Cardio-respiratory function in relation to performance
  • Exercise in Cardio-Vascular disease prevention & rehabilitation

Sports Injuries: Classifications, Causes & Preventive Measures

Intrinsic Risk Factor Extrinsic Risk Factor
Physical PreparationLack of proper training
Fitness label
Improper warming up & cooling Down
Over use of muscles
Muscles imbalance
Individual variables:-
a. Gender and Age
b. Nutrition
c. Fatigue
d. Posture deformities
Coaching
a. Poor techniques
b. Lack of knowledge

  • Skill
  • Rules & Regulations
  • Surrounding
  • Environment
  • Equipment
  • Facilities
EnvironmentalFactors
a. Climate
b. Playing Surface
c. Preventive surfaces
d. Medical facilities

Climatic  conditions affect the performance
Environmental conditions, such as excessively high or low temperatures, have the potential to have a negative impact on an athlete‘s well-be ing. An athletes‘ ability to use a numberof thermoregulation techniques helps in regulating body temperature.
Sports injuries are those which are common in the field of games and sports. During training, competition or  practice, any player can be injured. Perhaps there will not be any player who has not been injured during his career.

 

First Aid- Aims & Objectives

Joint injuries & its  types
A hard blow to a joint, a fall, a forceful throwing, lifting or hitting may cause dislocation. In fact it is dislocation of the surface of bones.
Types of dislocation
a) Dislocation of the lower jaw: it occurs when the chin strikes to any other object. It may occur if the mouth is opened excessively.
b) Dislocation of shoulder joint: dislocation of shoulder joint may occur due to a sudden jerk or a fall over a hard surface. The end of the humerus comes out from the socket. In face when your shoulder dislocates, a strong force, such as a sudden blow to your shoulder. Pulls the bones in your shoulder out of place.
c) Dislocation of the hip joint: By putting maximum strength spontaneously may cause dislocation of the hip joint. The end of the femur is displaced from the socket.
d) Dislocation of the wrist: A sportsperson who participates in sports or game in which he may fall, runs the risk of getting a dislocated wrist. A miscalculated landing can also cause a dislocated wrist. In fact, it generally occurs to the person who uses his hand to break his fall.
Preventions:
a) Adequate warming-up should be performed prior to any activity.
b) Proper conditioning should be performed during the preparatory period.
c) Stretching exercises should be included in the warm-up
d) Players should be careful during training and competition.
e) Protective equipment should be used
f)  Players should have good anticipation and concentration power
g) Always obey the rules and regulations.
h) Perform regular exercise around your shoulder, hip, and wrist joints etc.
i)  Avoid falls or hits as far as possible.
Causes of fracture
The fracture usually occurs due to a high impact on the bone. It can be caused by overuse. The most common causes of fracture are:
a) In such a sports event where there is a high impact.
b) Traumatic, forceful and unnatural movements.
c) Prolonged long-distance walking or running.
d) Sudden fall on a hard surface.
e) Direct strike or hit with any solid sports equipment.
f) Osteoporosis.

Management of Injuries

a) Elevate the extremity and rest while the bone heals itself.
b) Apply ice to the affected part for 24 to 48 hrs
c) If pain persists, give painkillers.
d) If there is any need for immobilization to the affected part, use a sling
e) After removal of swelling begin to put partial weight on the affected area.
f) Crutches or walking stick may be used in the beginning. After two weeks start putting normal weight.
g)   For 6 to 8 weeks, avoid the activity that caused a stress fracture. Then start doing the activity slowly.

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