PEd Notes (Class 12)

CBSE Class 12 Physical Education Chapter 6 Women and Sports

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Sports participation of Women in India

For women’s participation in sports, we have a look at the ancient period. Regarding participation in the first modern Olympic (1896 Athens), there was no participation of women.

  • Women participated the first time in 1900 Olympics. (22 women participated in)    — In 1904 six women participated.
  • And after 100 years in 2000 Sydney Olympics 4069 women had participated.
  • In 2008 Beijing Olympics 4637 women participated.
  • Participation in India
  • In 2000 karnam Malleshwari was the first woman who won the bronze medal in Sydney Olympic from India.
  • In 1984 performance of P.T. Usha was very good in Athletics.
  • In 2012 London Olympics Saina Nehwal and M.C. Maricom got the bronze medal.

In 2016, Rio Olympics, Sakshi Malik won the bronze medal, P.V. Sandhu won silver medal whereas Deepa Karmakar opened new dimensions in gymnastics. Over the past several decades the participation of women in sports in the sports field has increased tremendously. But really, it is a matter of regret for all of us to know that sports are such a field where gender inequality is strongly evident. The general social environment has not only inhibited women from participation in sports but has also criticised them when they participate. Many people comment for women “Why don’t they stay in the kitchen where they belong”?

But Now the time has changed. Women are capable of changing society. Now the ideology suggests that women are participating in every sphere of life and proving themselves globally.

Reasons for the low rate of sports participation by women in India

1. Gender equity & social attitude
a. No parental encouragement
b. Traditional society
c. Less motivation and inspiration
d. Women constraining other women

2. Lack of plans and initiatives for sportswomen by the Government
a. Male dominant culture
b. Less availability of women coaches
c. No independent games facilities for women
d. More emphasis on study
e. Less competition

3. Economic Factors
4. Social Customs and Rights
5. Low Health Consciousness
6. Stress on Academics
7. Media Coverage

8. Lack of Incentives & Career

Special consideration
Menarche is the first menstrual bleeding of the young girl (9-16 yrs.)
Menstrual dysfunction
Menstrual dysfunction is a disorder or irregular menstrual cycle in women. It can also be defined as “An abnormal bleeding during the menstrual cycle”.

Factors/related problems
1. The absence of menstrual periods:- This problem may be due to the eating disorder, excessive exercise schedule, the extreme level of stress and medications etc.
2. Premenstrual syndrome:- Many girls may have symptoms such as acne, backaches, sore breasts, headaches, constipation, depression, irritability and feeling anxious etc.
These symptoms may be faced by the female before their menstruation.
3. Abnormal Cramps:- These cramps are caused by a chemical in the body that makes the muscles in the uterus contract.
4. Heavy or prolonged period:- It is common for a girl’s menstrual period to be heavier on some days than others.
5. Irregular menstrual period:- The regular menstrual cycle for a female is 28 days. However, it may vary from 21 to 35 days.
6. Delay in the first menstrual period.

Special Consideration

1. Menarche:- “It is the first natural cycle and is a central event of female puberty”.

2. Menstrual dis-function:- Painful and irregular menstrual cycle of women to be on the rise with the decreasing involvement of the women in the physical fitness and endurance sports.

Female Athletes Triad  

Female athlete triad is a syndrome in which eating disorders, osteoporosis and amenorrhea, eating disorders affect adversely on the body.

1. Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder in which reduction in bone mass may cause the fracture.
a. Insufficient calcium in the diet.
b. Amenorrhoea
c. Eating disorder
d. Bad eathing habits
Osteoporosis:- Low bone mass.

2. Amenorrhea refers to the absence of menstrual periods. It may be either primary meaning woman has never developed menstrual periods) or secondary (absence of menstrual periods in a woman who was previously menstruating). There are many reasons responsible for amenorrhea including extensive exercise and improper diet. Exercising intensively and not consuming enough calories can lead to decreases in hormones that result in a girl’s periods becoming irregular or stopping altogether.

Amenorrhoea:- Absence of menstrual period for more than 6 months.
Anemia:- Resulting from the inadequate nutrition.

Eating disorders

Anorexia nervosa
In this eating disorder, the female athlete only think about food, dieting, and body weight all the time. They have distorted body structure. Other individuals usually feel them that are becoming thin but they do not believe this. In front of the mirror, they see themselves obese.

Bulimia nervosa
In this eating disorder, the female eats an excessive amount of food and then vomits it in order not to gain weight. In this disorder, an individual binges on food and feels a loss of control. Then to prevent weight gain try to vomit the food.

Psychological Aspects of Women Athlete

1. More goal oriented
2. Psychological stronger
3. Less aggressive
4. Fast adaptation
5. Image conscious
6. Poise & confidence

Sociological Aspects of Sports Participation

1. Family – Family is a very significant social factor, which is generally responsible for early sports socialization. The socializing process at home for both sex is different. Males usually get more support and encouragement to get involved in sports activities. They are further provided with more facilities to encourage and support participation in sports and games. However female usually are not encouraged to get involved in sports activities.
2. School – The culture of sports is generated in schools and the reputation of the school is dependent on the success of male and females as sports personalities. Lots of schools do not have girl teams as male teams (soccer/ wrestling/boxing etc/) They do not have proper arrangements for coaches and sports facilities for females.
3. Culture – Cultural beliefs have the great impact on the involvement of females in sports. Many cultures still firmly believe that women’s place is in the kitchen. The participation in the sports masculinises females are viewed negatively.
4. Attitude and prejudices – Attitude and prejudices of society play the significant role in sports participation; some females avoid certain sports for fear of being perceived masculine. Due to such attitude and prejudices of society regarding sexuality inhibit females to participate.
5. Religious faith discourages woman participation in sports
6. Illiteracy in society
7. Biological inferiority
8. Male dominance
9. Lesser concentration to develop woman sports equipment & facilities
10. Less competitive spectators for woman sports

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