Class 12th Economics
Government Budget and Economy
1. Government Budget: A government budget is an annual statement showing receipts and expenditures during a fiscal year.
5. Capital Receipts The receipts of government which create liability or reduce financial assets are called capital receipts. These receipts are classified under the following heads
(i) Market borrowings
(ii) Other borrowings and loans
(iii) Small savings
(iv) Provident fund and other deposits
6. Revenue Expenditure It refers to the expenditure that does not result in the creation of assets reduction of liabilities. The revenue expenditure is also of two types
(i) Plan revenue expenditure
(ii) Non-plan revenue expenditure
7. Capital Expenditure It refers to the expenditure which leads to the creation of assets or a reduction in liabilities. e.g., defence capital, purchasing land, building etc.
8. Plan Expenditure The expenditure to be incurred during the financial year on the development and investment programmes under the current Five Year Plan is termed as plan expenditure.
9. Non-Plan Expenditure All expenditures of government not included in the current Five-Year Plan is termed as non-plan expenditure.
10. Deficit Budget If government expenditures exceed the government receipts, it is called deficit budget.
(i) Revenue Deficit (RD) = Total Revenue Expenditure – Total Revenue Receipts
(ii) Fiscal Deficit (FD) = Total Budget Expenditure – Total Budget Receipts excluding borrowing Or Fiscal Deficit = Borrowing
(iii) Primary Deficit (PD)=Fiscal Deficit Interest Payment
11. Measures to Reduce Fiscal Deficit
(i) Reduce public expenditure
(ii) Increasing revenue from taxation and other measures
12. Discretionary Fiscal Policy If investment falls and government spending can be raised so that autonomous expenditure and equilibrium remain the same. This deliberate action to stabilise the economy is often referred to as a discretionary fiscal policy.