PEd Notes (Class 12)

CBSE Class 12 Physical Education Chapter 5 Children and Sports

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Motor Development in Children

Motor development refers to the development of general body control, fine motor skills and large muscle movements. There are three stages of motor development in children as given below infancy or infancy hood, early childhood & later childhood.
It is of two types:
1. Gross motor development involves the development of large muscles in the child‘s body such as sitting, walking, running etc.
2. Fine motor development involves the dthe evelopment of small muscles of the body, especially during the small movements of the fingers and hands eg. Holding of a javelin, discus and pole, catching a cricket ball etc.

Factors Affecting Motor Development

  • Nutrition: – Nutritious food promotes good motor development. Sensory-motor development is dependent upon nutrition that the child gets to a great extent. Children get stronger and development is good if they get nutritious food.
  • Immunization: – If mother and child both are immunized at a proper time it leads to good sensory motor development.
  • Environment: – Encouragement, love and security help the child to take the risk to explore fearlessly and to know more about the environment which leads to a better sensory development.

 Other factors –

1. Heredity
2. Nutrition
3. Sleep
4. Immunization
5. Environment
6. Stimulation and Interaction
7. Opportunities
8. Training and Practice
9. Recreation
10. Education-Learning and Productivity
11. Gender
12. Posture Deformities
13. Sensory Impairment
14. Obesity
15. Social Skills
16. Mental Health

Advantages and Disadvantages of Weight Training

Physical benefit of exercise  

l. Physical Health and Strength
2. Mental Health
3. Emotional Wellbeing
4. Social Health
5. Positive School Environment
6. Motivating personality
7. Controls anti-social behavior

Physiological benefits of Exercise

1. Strengthening the heart
2. Strengthens bones and muscles
3. Controls Blood Sugar
4. Regulate Blood Pressure
5. Increases Energy level
6. Detoxification
7. Reduce Cholesterol level

Advantages  of weight training are:
a) Increase bone density: weight training helps in increasing bone density. The risk for osteoporosis  is lower for the individuals who do weight training exercises at least 3 times a week.
b) Helps in getting good shape: Weight training is magical as it shape up all by involvan ing appropriate schedule. Fat peoples can become slim and slim can gain weight and become strong.

Disadvantages  of weight training are:
a) Risk of injuries: there is always a risk of injuries while performing weight training without any companion. In case you are alone and you are not able to do the required repetitionsthe of the exercise, you may be injured.
b) Less flexibility; weight training reduces flexibility if flexibility exercises are not done along with weight training. If flexibility exercises are done continuously then such disadvantage can be ignored.

Weight training:-Those exercise, that is designed to strengthen specific muscles. By causing them to overcome a fixed resistance, usually in the form of Barbells or dumbbells.

Advantages of Weight Training
1. Improves Posture and range of motion
2. Increases muscles strength, bone density and endurance
3. Protection against injury
4. improve motor performance
5. Promote healthy Blood pressure and Cholesterol levels
6. Maintain Healthy Weight
7. Develop confidence and self-esteem
8. Improve immune system functions
9. improve Psycho-socio well being
10. Promote and develops exercise habits

Disadvantages of Weight Training
1. Maturity
2. Introduce Injury
3. Safety
4. Loss of Flexibility

Concept & Advantages of Correct Posture

The posture in which the body is so balanced as to produce the least fatigue It means balancing the body inaan ccurate and proper manner while sitting, standing etc or during any other actions.

Importance:-
a) One‘s personality can be judged,
b) Better balance, agility and overall physical performance.
c) helps in maintaining a pa roper manner of standing, sitting walking of one‘s body.
d) it is a measure of one‘s alertness.
e) has better alignment, which translates into less injury.
f) recovers quicker from exercise or physical exertion, and feels more energetic

Causes of Bad Posture
(i) Injury when bone, ligament or muscle is injured, it weakens the support to that
(ii)Disease causes the joints to lose their strength and mobility.
(iii) Heredity Deformities like Kyphosis and flat foot are sometimes due to hereditary factors.
(iv) Overload Overwork or fatigue also results in poor posture.
(v) Lack of Exercise The maintenance of erect posture requires strength and endurance.

Common Postural Deformities

Postural deformities are the exaggerated curvature of the spine. The spine is naturally curved but various factors may give rise to the deformities. It reduces the efficiency of the ithe ndividual to great extent & causes more health problem.

Knock Knee – a postural deformity in which both the knees touch or overlap each other in a normal standing position

Causes of knock knee
(ì) The weakness of muscles and ligaments
(ii)Overweight body
(iii) Lack a of balanced diet
(iv) Lack of vitamin-D

Flat Foot is a deformity of the feet. In this deformity, there is no arc in the foot and the foot is completely flat.

Round Shoulder It is a postural deformity in which the shoulders are drawn, the head is extended with the chin pointing forward.

Causes of round shoulders
(i) Due to poor posture while working
(ii) Faulty furniture
(iii) Wrong habit of sitting / standing
(iv) Carrying a heavy load on shoulders
(V) By sleeping on one side

Kyphosis is a deformity of the spine in which there is an increase or exaggeration of a backward curve.

Corrective measures of kyphosis  
(i) Perform Dhanurasana regularly
(ii) Bend your head backward in standing position.
(iii) Reverse sit-up
(iv) Perform Bhujang Asana
(v) Perform ushtt Asana

Bow Legs  is a deformity opposite knock knee. In fact, if there is a wide gap between the knees, the deformity can be observed easily.

Lordosis is a common defect in deformity & posture. Here the lumber curve becomes more pronounced and the front central position of pelvic region is tilted forward.

Corrective measures of Lordosis
(i) Forward bending
(ii) Alternate toe touching
(iii) Sloop walking
(iv) Perform paschimotan Asana
(v) Perform sit-ups regularly

Causes of scoliosis
(i) Congenital scoliosis, which is caused by a bone abnormality present at birth. Neuromuscular scoliosis, which results from clue Lo abnormal muscles or nerves.
(ii) This is seen in people with cerebral palsy or having partial paralysis.
(iii) Degenerative scoliosis, which may result from traumatic (. i. e. Injury Í illness) bone collapse, previous major back surgery, or osteoporosis.
(iv) Idiopathic scoliosis, which is the most common type. It has no specific identifiable cause.
 
Corrective measures of scoliosis
(i) Perform Ardh Chakra Asana
(ii) Chin-ups
(iii) Swim by using breast stroke technique
(iv) Perform Trikon Asana
(v) Perform Tarra Asana

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