CBSE Class 12 Physical Education Chapter 1 Planning in Sports

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Planning in Sports

Planning in Sports

Planning in Sports


Meaning and Objectives of Planning

“Planning is a way to systematize, direct and organise the events or competitions and extract the advantage and benefit of the available resources.”

“Planning is the process of making a sequence of work for a future line of action”
The success of Physical education programmes depends on efficient staffing, food, direction, proper control, well supervision, good coordination and minimize the chances of lapses.
  • To reduce undue pressure
  • To provide proper coordination among the committees.
  • To have good control over all the activities.
  • To improve efficiency.
  • To reduce the chances of mistakes.
  • To increase creativity.
  • To enhance the sports performance.
  • To protect existing facilities.
  • Provide new facilities to meet demand.
  • Helps in decision making.

 Various Committees and Its Responsibilities.

Tournament – Knock Out, League Combination.

 A series of sports competitions, in which, a team finally wins and rest of the participating teams lose the matches. It depends on various actors i.e. – No. of participating teams, availability of grounds and types of equipment, No. of days and funds.
Importance of tournament
  1. The sportsman learns the discipline by playing tournaments.
  2. The sportsman meets another sportsman at a single platform.
  3. He learns ethical values such as honesty, fair play, respect for others.
  4. Tournaments provide recreation to all, i.e. organizers, spectators, students.
Type of tournament
 A. Knock out: In this type of tournament, the team once defeated, gets eliminated from the tournament. Only the winning teams contest in the next rounds. Opportunities are given to the winning players/teams.
B. League: In single league tournament all participating teams compete once, with each other, whereas in the double league, each team plays with every as in the double league, each team plays with every other team twice, without any consideration of victory or defeat.
C. Combination Tournaments: Combination tournaments are organized in the group or zonal matches. Whenever there is a large number of teams, combination tournaments facilitate the Physical Education Teachers, job. It gives them elbow room to try out new experiments.
There are mainly four types of combination tournaments:
(a) Knock out cum Knock out
(b) League cum league
(c) Knock out cum league
(d) League cum Knock out
D. Challenge Tournament: This type of tournament comes handy when there are one to one contests or there are two players on each side. One player challenges the other and the other player accepts the challenge. Games in which such tournaments are held are – Boxing, Tennis, Table Tennis, Badminton etc. Fixtures in such tournaments are decided according to :
(a) Ladder Method
(b) Physical Method
(c) Cobweb Method


Procedure to Draw Fixtures: Knock-Out League

A Knock-out Tournament:-
In this type of tournament, if a team is defeated once, it gets eliminated. Only the winners continue in the competition. It is the fastest method to know about the winning team in the tournament.
Seeding a Team:- The sorting of the teams and fitting them in the fixtures so that the stronger teams do not meet each other in earlier rounds are known as Seeding. This method is good if we know the real strong tarns. The organizers should find out the really strong teams from the previous tournaments or old records figure starting a new tournament.
Bye:- The advantage given to a team usually by drawing a lot, and exempting it from paying a match in the first round is known as Bye. These are given to a specific number of teams in the first round. The number of byes is decided by subtracting the number of teams from the next higher number which is in power of two’s.
Bye Next Higher No-no of Team [2n-no of teams]
Methods of Preparing Fixtures for Knock-out Tournaments:-
1. Total number of teams participating in the tournament
2. Total number of matches to be played in the tournament
     The formula for calculating the number of matches=n-1, where n is the total number of teams participating in the tournament.
3. Total number of rounds played in the tournament depends upon two things:-
      a. The number of teams playing in the tournament b
. The higher nearest number from the total number of teams of the power of two’s = 2n
4. Method of determining the number of teams in the upper half and lower half:-
      a. If the number of teams is even, then the equal number of teams will be divided into both halves i.e.- n/2, where n is the total number of teams.
      b. If the number of teams is odd, the following method is applied:
            A number of teams in upper half=(n+1)/2, where n=number of tarns.
            Number of teams in lower half=(n-1)/2, where n=number of teams
5. The number of byes is a knock-out tournament is decided by subtracting the total number of teams from the next higher nearest number in        power of two’s
1.4B Method for the draw of the fixture in league tournament:-
(a) Stair-case Method: In the stair-case method, the fixtures are made just like a ladder or a stair- case. In this method, no bye is given to any team and there is no problem of even or odd number of teams.
Example: Draw a fixture of 9 teams on league basis according to stair-case
(b) Cyclic Method: In the cyclic method, if the number of teams is even, the team number 1 is fixed on the top of the right-hand side and other teams in ascending order consecutively downward and then upward on the left side and rotate them clockwise. If the number of teams is odd, then bye is fixed on the top right side and the rest procedure remains the same. The number of rounds in case of even number of teams will be n -1, where n = number of teams. The number of rounds in case of the odd number of teams will be n, where n = number of teams.
Example 1. Draw a fixture of 6 teams on league basis according to the cyclic method.
Solution: Total number of teams = 6


Intramurals and Extramural – Meaning, Objectives and Its Significance

 Meaning of Intramurals:-
Intramural is derived from the Latin word’ Intra” and “murals’.”Intra” means “within” and “Muralis” means ‘Waif. So we can say that the activities, which are performed within the walls or within the campus of an institution , are called ‘Intramurals”
Objectives of Intramurals:-

  1. To provide the opportunity to every student to participate in Games and Sports
  2. To develop Leadership Qualities among students
  3. To develop Feeling of Cooperation
  4. To provide Recreation
  5. To develop the Feeling of Sports-manship
  6. To provide an opportunity to learn a variety of games and Skills
  7. To provide an opportunity to get Experience of Organisation of Competitions
  8. To find out talented Sportpersons
  9. To provide the opportunity to Develop the personality
Extramural is derived from the Latin words “Extra” and “Waif”. So, we can say that the activities which are performed outside the walls of an institution or school are known as “extramural”.
Objectives of Extramural:-
1.To provide Experience to Students
2. To improve the Standard of Sports
3. To broaden the Base of Sports
4. To develop Sportsmanship and Fraternity
5. To provide knowledge of New Rules and Advanced Techniques


Specific Sports Programme

Sports and games programmes are arranged in the world as well as in our country to promote the games and sports for a specific cause. Every country in the world has some or other cause for promoting specific sports programmes. The programmes motivate and create the feeling to take part in these sports programmes. People become health-conscious and try to remain fit and stay healthy for as long as possible. These specific sports programmes are usually organized by the federations, state government, NGO etc.to create health consciousness among the people and take part in health-related sports programmes. More and more people of all age groups should take part in such sports programmes. The various important specific programmes are:-

  1. Sports Day:
    • School Annual Sports Day
    • National Sports Day
  2. Health Run
  3. Run for Fun
  4. Run for Unity
  5. Run for Awareness
  6. Run for Specific Cause

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