A business which operates on a small scale and required less capital, less labour and fewer machines is called small business. The goods are produced on a small scale. This business is operated and managed by the owner of the business. In India, the village and small Industries sector consists of both traditional Handlooms, Handicrafts, khadi and Village Industries. Modern small Industries – Small scale industries and Power loom.
According to The Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise Development (MSMED) Act, 2006, a small-scale enterprise defined as one where the investment in Plant and Machinery is more than Rs. 25 lakhs but does not exceed Rs. 5 crore.
Several parameters can be used to measure the size of the business. These include:
- the number of persons employed in business,
- Capital invested in the business,
- The volume of the output of business and
- power consumed for business activities.
The definition used by the Government of India to describe small Industries is based on the investment in plant and machinery. It can be divided as follows:
Less than Rs. 25 Lakhs
Less than Rs. 10 Lakhs
Between Rs. 25 Lakhs to Rs. 5 Crore
Between Rs. 10 Lakhs to Rs. 2 Crore
Between Rs. 5 Crore to Rs. 10 Crore
Between Rs. 2 Crore to Rs. 5 Crore
Role of Small Scale Industries in Socio-Economic Development of India
- Employment: Small-scale Industries are the second largest employers of human resources after Agriculture. It has 95% of the industrial unit in the country. These enterprises are labour intensive and labour is available in abundance amount is rural areas of India.
- Variety of product: Small-scale Industries produce an enormous Variety of goods e.g. readymade garments, stationery, soaps, Leather’s goods Plastic and rubber goods.
- Export: The share of product from SSI is 45% of total export from India. So it earns valuable foreign exchange and solves the problem of balance of payment.
- Balance regional development: SSI can be set anywhere in the country. They use local resources, less capital and simple technology.
- Complementary to large scale Industries: SSI. supply various types of components, spare parts, tools etc, which are required by large-scale enterprises.
- Low cost of production: SSI also enjoys the advantage of low cost of production because they used local resources in their product.
- Quick and timely decision Due to the small size of the organization quick and timely decisions can be taken without consulting many people.
- Development of entrepreneurship: SSI provides the opportunity of young men and women to start their own business.
Role of Small Business in Rural India
- Provides Employment in Rural Areas: Cottage and rural industries provide employment opportunities in rural areas as these are labour oriented enterprises. In Indian rural areas, ample labour is available.
- Improve Economic Condition: Small business provides multiple sources of income to rural households. SSI improves economic conditions and standard of living of people living in those Areas.
- Prevent migration: Development other rural and village industries can also prevent migration of the rural population to urban areas in search of employment.
- The utilisation of Local Resources: SSI uses local resources e.g. coir, wood and other products.
- Equitable distribution of rational Income: Small Scale Industries and cottage Industries ensure equitable distribution of national income. This helps to reduce the gap between the rich and the poor in the country.
- Balanced Regional development – These enterprises are often dependent on the local source of production. This way, industries do not just limit themselves to a particular place but diversify. This helps in balanced regional development.
The problem of Small Scale Industries
- Finance: Non-availability of sufficient funds in order to carry out business operations is an important problem faced by small-scale industries. Bank sit at to grant financial help to these units.
- Raw Material & Power: Small-scale units are unable to buy raw materials in bulk due to lack of funds and storage facilities. Shortage of power is another factor which leads to underutilization of plant capacity.
- Marketing: Small-scale units generally face difficulties in the marketing of their products and services as they are hardly any funds for Advertising or sales promotion. They depend on intermediaries who exploit them.
- Technology: Majority of small-scale enterprises are using old techniques of production because they cannot afford new techniques, machines and equipment necessary for modernising product. As a result, their cost of production increases.
- Competition: Small-scale firms face competitions not only from large industries but also from multinational companies.
- Other problems:
- Lack of Managerial Efficiency.
- Lack of Demand for Produced Goods.
- Labour Problems.
- The burden of Local Taxes.
- Poor Product Quality.
Government Assistance to Small Industries And Small Business Units
- It supplies imported machines and raw materials to small industries on easy hire-purchase schemes.
- It exports the products of small units.
- It provides technology to Small Scale Industries.
- Helps in up gradation to technology.
- Provides an up gradation of technology
- Provides various equipment on a lease basis.
- Undertakes construction of industrial estates.
- Act as the focal point of industrialization of the district
- Identifies projects for setting up of SSI units.
- Issues permanent registration certificate to SSI units.
- Provides marketing support to SSI units
- Act as a link between the entrepreneurs and the lead bank of the district.
- Helps businessman in obtaining a license from the Electricity board, water supply board etc.
- Power: Some states supply power at a concessional rate of 50%.
- Tax holidays: Exemption from payment of tax for 5 years.
- Land and Water: Availability of land at a concessional rate. Water is supplied on no profit no loss basis.
- Octroi: Most of the states have abolished octroi.
- Protective Measures: The government reserved 800 items for exclusive production by the small scale Industries and give priority in the allocation of raw materials and machines.
- Marketing Assistance: Government tries to solve their marketing problem by improving information and in order to provide a guarantee for the sale of goods.
- Finance: Subsidy of 10-15% for building a capital asset. Loans are offered data confessional rates.
- Sales Tax: In all Union Territories, small industries are exempted from sales tax while some states give exemption of 5 years.