“Measurement is a process by which the level of performance, fitness, ability,
Knowledge, personality and skills are measured with the help of various standardTests”.
- Importance of Measurement in Physical Education & Sports:
- To know about the progress
- The individual-centered training program
- Helps in the selection of athletes
- To study the development of athletes
- To motivate an athlete
- To predict in advance the performance potentials
- To prepare norms and standards
- To measure current fitness status
- To achieve the goals and objectives of the activity
- To conduct research
Muscular strength is the amount of force the muscle or a group of muscle can exert against
resistance for short duration as in aerobic activities
Kraus Weber Test
It is a test of minimum muscular fitness of the various muscles of the body.
The test consists of six items which indicate the level of muscular strength and flexibility of key muscle groups. Usually, the scoring of each item is graded either on a pass/fail basis or a range of scoring from zero to ten. A subject’s grade of zero means that the subject has failed in a particular test item; score ranges from one to ten are for subjects who pass these test items.
Hans Kraus had devised these tests after Fifteen Years of close study of individual cases. A battery by six tests was prepared. The purpose of the tests was the measure Minimum muscle power necessary for healthy living. Because this is a Minimum Test, one should be able to perform all six parts.
The tests are as follows:
Test 1 tests the strength of the abdominal and psoas muscles.
1. Position: Lie down on the back, legs straight, feet held down, hands behind neck. The examiner holds down the feet and the student rolls to a sitting position.
Test 2 tests the strength of the abdominal muscles.
2. Position: Lie down on the back, Knees bent, Feet held down, Hands behind the back.
Test 3 tests the strength of the psoas muscles.
3. Position: Lie on back, hands behind neck.
Action: Lift both legs up 8 to 10 inches from floor hold for a count of 10 seconds.
Test 4 tests the strength of the upper back.
4. Position Lie face down. Place small pillows under hips. Lower body held down, hands behind neck.
Test 5 tests the strength of the lower back.
5. Position: Lie face down, Place a small pillow under hips, Upper body held down, head resting on hands.
Action: Lift upper body off the floor and hold for a count of 10 seconds.
Test 6 tests the strength of the back and hamstring muscles.
6. Position: Stand feet together, knees straight.
Action: Bend slowly forward and see how close you can come and touch the floor. If you can touch, measure a distance from finger to the floor. If you can touch, hold for a count of three, If you can’t touch, measure the distance from finger to floor.
The above tests are considered useful and preferable from the point of view
of equipment as well as time.
Motor Fitness Test – AAPHER
The AAHPER (American Alliance for Health, Physical Education and Recreation) youth fitness test was formed in 1965 in the United States but was revised in 1976. This test was administered on school students of 17 years of age.
This test consists of the following six items :
- Pull-ups: In case of girls, the pull-ups are to be started from a flexed arm hang. This test item judges the arm and shoulder girdle strength.
- Flexed Leg situps: This test is meant to judge the efficiency of abdominal and hip flexor muscles.
- Shuttle Run: This test item is meant for judging the speed and change of direction.
- Standing Long Jump: For judging the explosive power of the leg muscles.
- 50 yard Dash or Sprint: For judging speed.
- 600 yard Run: For judging endurance.
Administration of Tests: These tests can be conducted in a gymnasium or outdoors. The only apparatus required in these tests is a horizontal bar having a diameter of approximately 1½ inches for pull-ups and flexed arm hang for girls. However, the arrangement has to be made for the timing and recording of all scores with the help of timers and recorders.
Item No.1— Pull-ups: This item has to be done from a hanging position on the bar by using the overhead grasp (with palms facing outwards). The arms and legs of a subject should be fully extended. Form hanging position, the subject should raise his body with his arms until his chin is placed over the bar. Then, he should lower his body to a full hanging position. In doing so, the knees should not be bent and the pull should not be jerky or snap pull. (The number of completed pull-ups is the score of the subject.)
Item No. 1 (Girls)—Flexed-arms hung: In this test item for girls, the subject is required to hang from the bar with flexed arms and overhead grasp. She should raise her body to a position where the chin is above the bar, the elbows are flexed and the chest is close to the bar. The stopwatch is started as soon as a subject assumes such a hanging position and is stopped when the subject‘s chin falls below the level of the bar. (The time recorded in seconds for which a subject holds the hang position is her score)
Item No. 2— Sit-ups: For this test meant for boys and girls, the subject should lie on his or her back with knees flexed and kept not more than 12 inches from the buttocks. The hands of the subject should be placed at the back of the neck, fingers clasped and elbows touching the mat. From this position, the subject should raise his or her head and elbows forward upwards till the elbows touch the knees. This constitutes one sit-up. (The number of correctly performed sit-ups in 60 seconds from the start of the first set-up is the score of a subject).
Item No. 3—Shuttle Run: For this test item, two parallel lines are drawn at a distance of 30 feet from each other and two blocks of wood are placed behind one of the lines. The subject has to stand behind the other line and on the signal ―Ready, ―Go should run to pick up one block, run back to the starting line and place the block behind the line. He should again turn back to pick up the second block and bring it also behind the starting line. Two such trials are given. (The better time of the two trials to the nearest 10th of a second is the score of the subject).
Item No. 4—Standing Long Jump: In this test, a subject is required to stand behind a take-off line, with feet apart. He takes a jump forward by extending his bent knees and swinging the arms forward. The best jump recorded, out of the three trials given, is the score of the subject. (The jump should be recorded in feet and inches).
Item No. 5—50 Yard Dash: Two lines are drawn at a distance of 50 yards from each other. The subject is made to run from the start line to the finish line and his time taken is recorded in seconds (nearest to the tenth of a second.) This indicates his score.
Item No. 6—600 Yard Run: This run can be organized on a track, on a football field or an open area marked for this purpose. In this test item, a subject runs a distance of 600 yards. The subject takes a standing start from the start line. The subject may walk in between. However, the objective is to cover the distance in the shortest time. When he crosses the finish line, he is informed of his time. (The time taken to run the distance is recorded in minutes and seconds).
Measurement of Cardio-Vascular Fitness-Harward Step Test/Rock Port Test
Cardiovascular fitness is the ability of an individual to strengthen the heart muscles during continuous muscular activities in which numbers of muscles groups are used.
- Harvard Step Test- This test requires the athlete to step up and down off a gym bench for 5 minutes at a rate of 30 steps/minute which measures the Aerobic fitness test. After the workout, timing, heart rate, has to be measured. The athlete steps up and down onto a standard gym bench once every two seconds for five minutes (150 steps), The assistant stops the test after 5 minutes The assistant measures the athlete’s heart rate (bpm) one minute after finishing the test – Pulse1 The assistant measures the athlete’s heart rate (bpm) two minutes after finishing the test – Pulse2 The assistant measures the athlete’s heart rate (bpm) three minutes after finishing the test – Pulse3 Harvard step test fitness index score Rating Fitness Index Rating Fitness Index. In the Harvard step test for cardiovascular fitness, the physical index score:- PI=(Duration of exercise in seconds x 100) divided by 2× Sum of pulse counts in recovery.
- Rockport Fitness Walking Test – It is based on the maximum rate of oxygen consumption during exercise i.e VO2 max. Procedure :
- Choose a windless day to conduct the test.
- Record your weight in pounds (lbs)
- Walk one mile (1609 mt) as fast as possible.
- Record the time to complete the one-mile walk.
- Immediately on finishing the walk record your heart rate (beats per minute).
Determine your Maximum Cardio-Respiratory ability (VO2) from the calculation given below:
Calculation Procedure: Analysis of the result is done by comparing it with the result of the previous test. It is expected that appropriate training between each test should be done to show improvement.
The formula used to calculate
VO2 Max is : 132·853 – (0·0769 × weight) – (0·3877 × Age) + (6·315 × Gender) – (3·2649 × Time) – (0·1565 × Heart rate)
- Weight is in pounds (lbs),
- Gender : Male = 1 and Female = 0
- Time is expressed in minutes and seconds,
- Heart rate is in beats/minute
- Age in years.
Rikli & Jones – Senior Citizen Fitness Test
The Rikli and Jones Senior Citizen Fitness Test for assessing the functional fitness of older adults describe easy to understand and effective tests to measure aerobic fitness, strength, and flexibility using the minimal and inexpensive equipment. The Individual fitness test items involve common activities such as getting up from a chair, walking, lifting, bending and stretching.
The tests were developed to be safe and enjoyable for older adults while still meeting scientific standards for reliability and validity.
The tests are-
- Chair Stand Test for Lower Body Strength
- Arm Curl Test for Upper Body Strength
- Chair Sit & Reach Test for Lower Body Flexibility
- Back Scratch Test for upper body Flexibility
- Eight Foot Up & Go Test for Agility
- Six Minute Walk Test for Aerobic Endurance
Chair Stand Test for Lower Body Strength
The purpose of the Chair-Stand is to measure the strength of the lower body of adults over 60 years of age. Lower body strength is important for activities such as getting out of a chair, on the bus, out of the car and rising up from a kneeling position in the house or garden. The strength of your lower body can directly affect the ease with which you perform the activities you do every day.
Equipment: Chair without arms, Stopwatch.
Procedure: Place the chair against a wall where it will be stable. Sit in the middle of the chair with your feet flat on the floor, shoulder width apart, back straight. Cross your arms at the wrist and place them against your chest. The test partner will tell you when to begin and will time you for 30 seconds, using the stopwatch. You will rise up to a full stand and sit again as many times as you can during the 30-second interval.
Arm Curl Test for Upper Body Strength
It is a test of upper body strength. The purpose of this test is to measure upper body strength and endurance. The subject has to do as many arms curls as possible in 30 sec. This test is conducted on the dominant arm side (or stronger side)
- The subject sits on the chair holding the weight (8 pounds for men / 5 pounds for women) in the hand using a suitcase grip (palm facing towards the body) with the arm in a vertically down position beside the chair.
- The upper arm is placed against the body so that only the lower arm is moving (the tester may assist to hold the upper arm steady).
- The subject curls the arm up through a full range of motion, gradually turning the palm up.
- Then the arm is lowered through the full range of motion, gradually return to the starting position. The arm must be fully bent and then fully straightened at the elbow.
- Repeat this action as many times as possible within 30 sec.
- The score is the total number of controlled arm curls performed in 30 sec.
Chair Sit & Reach Test for Lower Body Flexibility
This test is used to measure the flexibility of the back and leg (hamstring muscle) It is a kind of absolute and linear test of flexibility.
Equipment: A testing box or a flexo measure and a yardstick. Procedure: The subject is asked to remove shoes and place his/her feet against the testing box while sitting on the floor with straight knees. Now the subject is asked to place one hand on top of the other so that the middle finger of both hands are together at the same length. The subject is instructed to lean forward and place his/her hands over the measuring scale lying on the top of the box with its 10-inch mark coinciding with the front edge of the testing box. Then, the subject is asked to slide his/her hands along the measuring scale as far as possible without bouncing and to hold the farthest position for at least one second.
Score: Each subject is given three trials and the highest score nearest to an inch is recorded and 10 inches are subtracted from the recorded reading to obtain the flexibility score which is compared with the standards given in.
Advantages: The sit and reach test is a common test of flexibility, and is an easy and quick test to perform. If using the standard testing procedure, there is a lot of published data to use for comparison.
Disadvantages: Variations in arm, leg and trunk length can make comparisons between individuals misleading. This test is specific to the range of motion and muscle and joints of the lower back and hamstrings, and may not be relevant to other parts of the body.
Back Scratch Test for upper body Flexibility
This test is performed in a standing position. Keep one hand behind the head and back over the shoulder and reach as far as the possible down middle of your back. Your palm should touch your body and the fingers should be downwards. Then carry another arm behind your back palm facing outward and fingers upward and reach up as far as possible trying to touch or overlap the middle fingers of both hands. Fingers should be aligned. Measure the distance between the tips of fingers. If the fingertips touch then score is zero, if they do not touch measure the distance between fingertips(negative), if they overlap than by how much (+ score).
Eight Foot Up & Go Test for Agility
This test is a coordination and agility test for senior citizens.
Purpose: To assess speed, agility, and balance while moving.
Types of equipment required: A chair with a straight back( about 44 cms high) a stopwatch, cone marker, measuring tape, an area without hindrance.
Procedure: Keep chair next to the wall and the marker, 8 feet in front of the chair. The participant starts completely seated, with hands resting on the knees and feet flat on the ground. On the command ‘go’ stopwatch is started and the participant stands and walk (on running at all) as quickly as possible to and around the cone and returns to the chair to sit down. Time is noted as he sits down on the chair. Two trials are given to the participant.
Scoring: The best trial is recorded to the nearest 1/10th second.
Six Minute Walk Test for Aerobic Endurance