- 1 Introduction
- 2 Types of Infrastructure
- 3 Difference between Social and Economic InfrastructureSocial Infrastructure –
- 4 Importance of Infrastructure
- 5 Sources of Energy
- 6 Some Challenges in the Power Sector
- 7 Measures to Meet Challenges Facing the Power Sector
- 8 HealthHealth is not only absence of disease but also the ability to realize one’s potential. It is a yardstick of one’s well being. Health is the holistic process related to the overall growth and development of the nation.State of Health Infrastructure
- 9 India’s Health Infrastructure and Healthcare is made up of a three-tier system
- 10 Development of Health Services in India
- 11 Health as an Emerging Challenge
- 12 NCERT Solutions
- 13 Share this:
- 14 Related
Types of Infrastructure
- Economic Infrastructure
- Irrigation and watershed management
- Science and Technology
- Financial Institutions
- Economic Infrastructure
- Civic Amenities
- Law and Order etc.
Difference between Social and Economic Infrastructure
Social Infrastructure –
- It helps the economic system from outside(indirectly).
- It improves the quality of human resource.
- For ex-Health, Education and housing.
- It helps the economic system from the inside(directly).
- It improves the quality of the economic resource.
- For ex-Energy, Transport, and communication.
Importance of Infrastructure
- Raises productivity
- Provides employment
- Induces foreign investments
- Raises the ability to work
- Facilitates outsourcing
- Raises economic development
- Raises the size of the market
- Generates linkages in Production
The State of Infrastructure in India
India invests approximate 5 percent of its GDP on infrastructure, which is far below than that of China and Indonesia.
With the government, the private sector in partnership with the public sector is also playing a very important role in infrastructure development.
India needs to develop its infrastructure especially in the area of rural energy requirement, water, basic amenities, and sanitation.
Energy is the lifeline of all production activities. Rapid growth in agriculture and industrial sector is not possible without it.
Sources of Energy
- Commercial sources are coal, petroleum, and electricity.
- Non-commercial sources of energy are firewood agricultural waste and dried dung.
- Conventional sources of energy include both commercial and non-commercial sources of energy. Example: national gas, coal, petroleum etc.
- Non-conventional sources of energy are renewable resources of energy like biomass, solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy, etc.
- Power/electricity: The most visible form of energy, which is often identified with progress in modern civilization is power/electricity.
Some Challenges in the Power Sector
- Insufficient installed capacity
- Under Utilisation of capacity
- Losses incurred by SEB
- Uncertain role of the private sector
- Public unrest
- Shortage of raw materials
- Transmission and distribution losses.
- Operational inefficiency
Measures to Meet Challenges Facing the Power Sector
- Reduce transmission and distribution losses.
- Improve the plant load factor
- Promote the use of CFLs & LEDs to save energy
- Encourage private sector participation
- Encouragement to Non-conventional sources of Energy.
- Biogas generation programmes.
- Encouragement to FDI and privatization in Energy production
- There has been a significant expansion in the physical provision of health services and improvements in health indicators since independence, but it is insufficient for the rapidly increasing population in India.
- Public health system and facilities are not sufficient for the bulk of the population.
- There is a wide gap between rural-urban areas and between poor and rich in utilizing healthcare facilities
- Woman’s health across the country has become a matter of great concern with reports of increasing cases of female foeticide and mortality.
- Regulated private sector health services can improve the situation and at the same time, NGOs and community participation is very important in providing health care facilities and reading health awareness.
- Indian system of medicine (ISDM) AYUSH (Ayurveda, yoga and naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, homeopathy needs to be explored.
- At the village level, a variety of hospitals known as Primary Health Centres(PHCs) have been set.
India’s Health Infrastructure and Healthcare is made up of a three-tier system
- Primary Healthcare
- Secondary Healthcare
- Tertiary Healthcare
- Primary Healthcare – It includes
- Maternal and child health care
- Promotion of health and provision of essential drugs
- Educating the people about identifying, preventing and controlling diseases.
- Secondary Healthcare – Healthcare institute having better facilities for surgery, x-ray, ECG are called Secondary Healthcare institutes. Patients are referred here when their condition is not managed by PHC.
- Tertiary Healthcare – In this sector, there are hospitals which have an advanced level equipment and medicines and undertake all the complicated health problems. which could not be managed by primary and secondary hospitals.
Development of Health Services in India
- The decline in Death Rate
- The rise in expectancy of life
- The decline in Infant Mortality Rate
- Control over Deadly Diseases.
Health as an Emerging Challenge
- Unequal distribution of health care services.
- Increasing privatization of health services.
- Poor sanitation Level
- Poor upkeep and maintenance of govt. health centers and poor management.
- Economic Infrastructure: Roads, railways, ports, telecommunication, etc. come under economic infrastructure.
- Social Infrastructure: Healthcare, educational facilities, housing, etc. come under social infrastructure.
- The installed capacity is not enough to meet 7 – 8% of growth in GDP. To make matters worse, the installed capacity is underutilized and hence power production is not matching the demand.
- The state electricity boards (SEBs) incur a huge loss which is to the tune of Rs. 500 billion. The losses are due to transmission and distribution losses, wrong pricing of electricity and other inefficiencies.
- The private sector is yet to participate in the power sector in a significant way.
- The public unrest is too much whenever the authorities try to raise power tariffs. Thus, power tariff is a politically sensitive issue.
- Thermal power plants which supply the major portion of power are facing an acute shortage of raw materials.