Forests are ‘biodiversity hot spots ‘.
Biodiversity is the variety of species living in different habitats.
Biodiversity should be preserved because a loss of biodiversity may lead to a loss of ecological stability.
All animals along with the stake holders are largely dependent on forest.
Stake holders are –
- Local people who live in forest or around forests and are dependent on forest for firewood, timber, fruits, nuts, medicines and thatches to make huts, baskets for collecting foods, implements for fishing, agriculture.
- The forest department which owns the land and converted the forests to monocultures of pine, teak plants and for this huge areas are cleared of all vegetation which effected large amount of biodiversity along with the varied needs of local people.
- The industrialists use the forests as a source of raw material for their factories.
- The nature enthusiasts want to conserve nature in its pristine form.
Forests are ought to be used in a manner that is both environmentally and developmentally sound.
Water is a basic necessity to all terrestrial life forms.
Human intervention also changes the availability of water in various regions.
Water availability is less because of urban waste, diversion for high water demanding crops etc.
Irrigation methods like dams, tanks, canals are used by local people to meet the minimum requirements of agriculture and daily needs.
Dams can ensure the storage of water not just for irrigation but also for generating electricity.
Canal systems leading from dams can transfer large amount of water to great distances.
For example- Indira Gandhi canal has brought greenery to large areas of Rajasthan.
Opposition to the construction of large dams-
- Social problems because to construct dams many peasants and tribal are replaced without adequate compensation.
- Economic problems because public spend large amount of money and do not get benefit.
Water conservation increases biomass production.
The aim of water harvesting is to develop primary resources of land and water to produce secondary resources.
Khadins, tanks, nadis in Rajasthan, bandharas, tals in Maharashtra, ahars and pynes in Bihar, surangams in Kerala, bundhis in Madhya Pradesh, eris in Tamil nadu, Kattas in Karnataka are some of the water harvesting system.
In largely level terrain, the water harvesting structures are crescent shaped earthen embankments; straight concrete and rubble check dams built across seasonally flooded gullies.
The advantages of water stored in ground are-
- It does not evaporate.
- Spreads out to recharge wells and provides moisture for vegetation over a wide area.
- Does not provide breeding grounds for mosquitos.
- Protected from human and animal waste.
Coal And Petroleum
Fossil fuels, coal and petroleum are important source of energy.
Coal and petroleum were formed from the degradation of biomass millions of years ago.
Contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and sulphur.
When coal and petroleum are burnt, the products are carbon di oxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxides of sulphur.
When combustion takes place in sufficient air the carbon monoxide is formed instead of carbon dioxide.
Oxides of sulphur, nitrogen and carbon monoxide are poisonous at high concentration.
Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas.